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1 . 

Ten Commandments Principles of Ary a Samaj 


Ary a Samaj 

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Chamupati, M.A. 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 2. 
Published By : 

Vedic Prakashan 

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Price Rs. 60/- 

Delhi Arya Pratiniddhi Sabha 

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3 . 

Ten Commandments Principles of Ary a Samaj 


Pandit Chamupati, M. A., a well-known Vedics cholar, 
some years back brought out a book in English on the Ten 
Commandments of Arya Samaj and its principles. He 
advocated and elucidated these commandments so ably that 
its study raised people’s faith in Arya Samaj and its principles 
to a very high level. The first edition of the book was 
exhausted soon and was out of print for some time. 1 am glad 
that it is being re -published for the good of the intelligentsia. 

This book is not only worth studying but is also 
worth possessing by every English knowing person for the 
development of one’s spiritual progress and day-to-day 
dealings in the worldly life. 

I strongly commend that every one should possess 
this valuable book, as its study will enable one to know what 
Arya Samaj is and what it stands for. Its study will bring home 
to the people that Arya Samaj is a universal movement started 
by the most reverend Swami Daya Nanda Saraswati for the 
benefit of mankind and its spiritual and material uplift, so 
essential for the good of the society. 

-Ananda Swami Saraswati 

Ten Commandments Principles of Arya Samaj 

4 . 



Introduction 5 

Preface 12 

1. The Source of Truth 15 

2. The One Adorable 1 8 

3. The Scripture of Truth 26 

4. Belief in Truth 47 

5. Practice ofTruth 52 

6. The Ideal of Universal Good 54 

7. The duty of Love 69 

8. Vidya and Avidya 82 

9. Self-Greater and Smaller 91 

10. Duty and Liberty 



Ten Commandments Principles of Ary a Samaj 


There was a time when it was believed by the leading 
scientists and philosophers of the world that all civilizations 
had grown up independently and by a process of evolution. 
Tyler talked of “independent evolution” and “psychic unity”. 
Rivers, however, exposed the falsity of this view and started 
the “Theory of Transmission of Cultures.” This hypothesis is 
being increasingly supported by sociologists and 
anthropologists. In fact, early in the nineteenth century Von 
Humboldt had come to the conclusion that “if languages 
afford only feeble proofs of the ancient communications 
between the Old World and the New, the connection is 
revealed in an indubitable form by the cosmogonies, the 
monuments, the hieroglyphs and the institutions of the 
peoples of America and Asia.” The 'writer of the article on 
Mexico in the Encyclopeadia Britannica and Prescot in his 
immortal works on Mexico and Peru specifically mention India 
as the possible source of ancient American civilization. This 
view was, as we have stated, converted into a sociological 
theory by. Rivers. Perry in his “Children of the Sun” built it 
up further. He came to the definite conclusion that : — 

‘The idea of universal, steady, continual upward 
.cultural progress must be given up once and for all, as 
contrary to patent facts.” (Page 128). 

Says Dr. Elliot Smith, M A., M.D., F.R.S., in the chapter 
on anthropology contributed by him to the latest American 
publication on the subject, “Evolution in the Light of Modern 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 6. 
Knowledge”: — 

“Moreover, they (ethnologists) invented the argument 
that useful arts once acquired could not he lost, a most 
fallacious claim which wrought untold confusion in 
anthropological discussions until Dr. Rivers in 1912 exposed 
the error and its implications.” Again 

‘The amazing coincidences sn the arbitrary details of 
hundreds of strange customs and beliefs revealed in the erliest 
civilizations of Central Africa Mexico and Peru, when 
compared with contemporary or earlier evidence from Asia, 
call for something more satisfying in the way of explanation 
than the claims that the resemblances ‘may arise from no more 
than a common psychology,” and that “the evidence which 
we possess points rather to the undisturbed evolution of 
Mexico and Mayan Civilization on American soil, and that 
civilization may therefore be regarded as in every sense 
American.” It ss not surprising that the man in the street, who 
is not to be deceived by such trivial evasions of a great issue, 
attempted to interpret in his own way the obvious fact that 
there must have been some sort of intimate contact between 
the Old World and the New ten centuries and more ago, to 
explain the derivation of the strangely exotic elements of the 
Mayan, Aztec, Pre-Inca and Inca Civilizations. 

The learned doctor even recognises that “progress is 
not the rule.” Says he : — 

“Once the reality of the fact is recognised that progress 
is the exception rather than the rule in the history of human 
societies, the chief difficulty is eliminated that was 
responsible for the doctrine of “independent evolution.” 

Not merely this ! It is also being recognised in an 
increasing degree that biological analogies are misleading. 
Says our author : — 

7. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 

“It is therefore dangerous and misleading to use such 
terms as “evolution”, as so many writers are now doing, in 
raference to cultural history and to circumstances that are 
fundamentally distinct from those biological phenomena in 
reference to which the terms in question were devised.” 

Many philosophers and thinkers are now positively of 
opinion that the source of all cultures is the Veda. Says Edward 
Carpenter in his “Art of Creation” : — 

“A new philosophy we can hardly expect or wish for, 
since indeed the same germinal thoughts of the Vedic authors 
come all the way down history even to Schopenhaur and 
whiteman, inspiring philosophy after philosophy and religion 

after religion and it is only to-day that Science, with its 

huge conquests in the material plane, is able to provide — for 
these world-old principles — somewhat of a new form and so 
wonderful a garment of illustration and expression as it does.” 
(Page vii). 

Not only are philosophers, who study the Veda, forced 
to this view, but even religious propagandists, whose interest 
it is to prove the superiority of their own religion, are driven 
to this startling conclusion. Says Mourice Phillips in his “The 
teachings of the Vedas” (London) Longmans Green and Co., 

“It is evident then that the higher, up to the sources of 
the Vedic religion, we push our inquiries, the purer and 
simpler we find the conception of God, and in proportion as 
we come down the stream of time, the more corrupt and 
complex we find it. We conclude, therefore, that the Vedic 
Aryans did not acquire their knowledge of divine attributes 
and functions empirically, for, in that case, we should find at 
the end what we find at the beginning. Hence we must seek 
for a theory which will account alike for the acquisition of 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
Varuna, and for that gradual depravation which culminated 
in Brahma; and what theory will cover these facts as well as 
the doctrine of a Primitive Revelation.” (Page 104) 

Mr. Phillips took the same view in the paper which he 
read before the Parliament of Religions held at Chicago in 

It is clear, therefore, that in proportion as the 
hypothesis of eternal progress is suffering discredit, it is being 
progressively realised that the fount of knowledge must be 
looked for in the Veda, the ancientmost scripture of the human 
race. Even orientalists are veering round to the view that the 
Veda is not the record of primitive savagery. Max Muller, 
who started with the idea that the Veda was a collection of the 
traditions of savages, had in his mature age when Rishi 
Dayananda’s intellectual influence considerably modified his 
opinion, to acknowledge that it taught the loftiest 
conceptions. He says in his ‘Six Systems of Indian 
Philosophy’ that the Vedic poets had arrived at a conception 
of the Godhead which had only once been reached by the 
Christian philosophers of Alexandria, but which was even 
now beyond many who called themselves Christian.’ Not only 
that, but in spite of himself he was led to exclaim in the same 
book that there were startling outbursts of philosophy in the 
Vedas, and that “there always have been individuals whose 
mind was untrammelled by the thoughts of the great mass of 
the people and who saw and proclaimed, as if inspired by a 
power not themselves, truths, far beyond the reach of 
their fellow-men.” A later orientalist, Barth, is constrained to 
admit : — 

“The poetry it (the Veda) contains appears to me, on 
the contrary, to be of singularly refined character and 
artificiallary elaborated, full of allusions and reticences, and 
the manner of its expressions is such as reminds one more 

9 . Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Santa/ 
frequently of the phraseology in use among certain small 
groups of initiates than the poetic language of a large 
community. And these features. 1 am constrained to remark, 
are characteristic of the whole collection (Barth xiii — xv. quoted 
by Perry in his Children of the Sun, Pages 181-182.) 

A study of the history of philosophy also tends to 
confirm the view that the modern-most conceptions are 
to be found in their fully developed form in the 
ancientmost or eternal scripture — the Veda — and in their 
distorted forms in the historical religions. Take the 
conception of the nature of matter. The latest view of matter 
is that ether is the sole source of all substances. Now ether 
is a fluid. In the Rigveda. X. 129 we read that in the 
beginning of the cycle of creation, there was ‘a vast body 
of fluid containing productive force.’ We find the same 
conception slightly distorted in Homer who says that 
“water or ocean” is the origin of all things, gods and men 
included.” Aristophanes also speaks of the primeval “deep 

abyss a wondrous egg from which issued love.” 

Athenagoras speaks of ‘the egg formed by the union of 
chaos and ‘ether’, and of the operation of energy of active 
principle upon the eternal mass of passive matter.” In the 
first chapter of Genesis we are told the same thing. 

This very cosmological conception, viz., that of 
eternal akasha, gave rise to the theory of Eternal ‘Shabda’. 
which is no other than the Veda, elaborated by Jaimini. 

It thus appears that the Veda is the “logos” which recurs 
so often in the philosophic traditions of the human race and 
which is first mentioned in Rigveda X, cxc. It is this which 
Plato calls “the immanent reason of the world” that “existeth 
from all time” and is “The Divine Law” upon which “all 
human laws are fed.” It is this which, Anaxagoras says, “is 
intermediate between God and the world, being the regulating 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj /(/_ 
principle of the universe, the divine intelligence.” It is this 
Veda which is the real “memra” that, in the words of the Jewish 
philosopher Philo, is the “teacher not only of every virtue 
and of all theological knowledge, but of all human arts and 
sciences. It is this Veda which constitutes “the first spark of 
philosophy,” that, according to Archbishop Berkley, “must 
have been derived from heaven.” It is this which, constitutes 
the “spiritual influx,” in the direction of which according to 
the eminent physicist and co-discoverer of Evolution, Alfred 
Russell Wallace, all the evidence points and which, he says, 
was analogous to that which first initiated to organized life 
of the plant then the consciousness and intelligence of the 
animal and lastly reason...”. 

This eternal scripture, says the French savant Edward 
Schuse in his Rama and Moses, has a peculiar fascination for 
the modern man, for 

“It may be that the future is reserving for us a final 
surprise, that of discovering in the Vedas the definition of 
occult forces of nature which modern science is rediscovering 
for us.” 

It is this Veda which Swami Dayananda has rescued 
from the debris of superstition and false interpretation, and 
restored to its pristine refulgence. The ten principles of the 
Arya Samaj constitute the quintessence of the cosmopolitan 
and universal principles of the Veda. Pandit Chamupati has 
given a thought-provoking and scholarly exposition of these 
life-giving principles in this book, and when he requested 
me to write an introduction, 1 responded to his fraternal call 
with the greatest pleasure. 1 count it a great privilege to be 
associated with a distinguished protagonist and scholar in 
the work of spreading broadcast the ageless divine wisdom 
enashrined in the Veda. In the words of a great western savant, 
“this holy revelation; like a beautiful rock crystal reflects 

U Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 

the sun of eternal truth, and in the brilliant prism shine all 

the beams of a world-wide theosophy.” 


Principal, Gurukul University Kangri, Hardwar 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 

12 . 


Cosmopolitan Outlook. The Principles of the Arya 
Samaj have been pronounced on all hand to be cosmopolitan, 
.ie„ they are equally applicable to all lands and peoples of 
all ages, past, present and future. They may be adopted by 
any society that has for its aim the upliftment of numinity. 
They are neither too broad to be definite nor even too narrow 
to be non-sectarian. They affirm certain positive things and 
aims, and refute certain doctrines which all right-thinking 
persons will unanimously affirm to be false. They have in 
them the certainty of dogmas, and the rationality of universal 
truisms). Their author, the founder of the Arya Samaj, has, in 
the very framing of them, given proof of intuitional wisdom, 
the compre-hensive vision of a seer. 

Individual and Social Duties. These rules emphasise 
virtues both individual and social, and thus pave the way for 
the progress both of man individually and of man in the 
collective sense. By making their personal convictions 
definite and trying to raise in accordance with them their 
practical morals, as indicated in the first five principles, men 
of all climes are exhorted to rise individually. By adopting a 
broad-minded attitude towards humanity, i.e, by identifying 
themselves with the whole family of human and, where 
possible, animate beings, and by seeking to elevate mankind 
as a whole, they are taught the true way to elevate themselves. 
The progress sought to be achieved is at the same time 
physical, spiritual, and social. The merging of the little self 

73 . Ten Commandments Principles of Atya Samaj 
in the broader self of the society is laid repeated and ample 
stress on, but a distinct line is drawn between where the voice 
of the individual ego should have greater weight and where 
altruistic motives should prevail. 

An Index to the Mission. Rishi Dayananda has a knack 
never to beat about the bush. He nowhere minces matters. He 
is clear-sighted, concise and direct. This is the principal beauty 
of his sayings and writings. He never makes two and two five. 
The principles of the Arya Samaj he founded are an index to 
his whole outlook on life and duty. They contain, as in an 
epitome, the whole viewpoint of the movement he started. In 
his larger works, which cover bulky volumes, he addressed 
his great soul to the solution of almost all problems that 
concern humanity. These problems he tackled according to 
his own light and the light bequeathed to him in the sacred 
literature of the Aryans by Rishis that preceded him. The 
principles of the Arya Samaj were intended to form the first 
introduction of a novice to his whole mission. In these, 
therefore, he does not bother himself with credal and 
philosophical niceties but is content to place before the 
initiate the broad horizon of his philosophical teachings and 
the vast perspective of philanthropic action which awaits the 
endeavour of the Arya, working both singly and in co- 
operation with his fellow-workers. The direct import of the 
principles is simple. Indirectly they point to other i.e., more 
detailed teachings, also. We shall, where necessary, refer to 
these teachings by the way, so that the reader, while conscious 
of their express significance, may not miss their inner import. 
Our main aim will, however, be to expound the express sense 
of the Rishi’s words. 

In the first edition we called these principles “The Ten 
Commandments of Dayananda” not to institute any comparison 
between them and the Commandments of Moses, but because 
we felt and still feel that their place in the creed of the Arya 

Ten Commandments Principles of Arya Samaj 
Samaj is the same as that of the original tablets of the Jewish 
Prophet, which the Jewish and Christian creeds own to be the 
pith of their teachings. The Ten Commandments of Moses 
have a splendid history behind them. The history of the Ten 
Commandments of Dayananda will be written by historians 
of the future. It will, we believe, be an incomparably glorious 
history. The future is to be the age of scientific preciseness 
and comprehensive versatility ; and the principles of the Arya 
Samaj possess both these attributes in an unprecedentedly 
ample degree. 


Ten Commandments Principles of Ary a Samaj 

The First Principle 


The first (efficient) cause of all true knowledge and all that is 
known through knowledge is Parameshvara (the Highest Lord, 
i.e., God). 

3Tf3P^t A: fqcTT 4 f^^TRTT ^ f^T I 
■5TT ^FTT cf TT5T^T d-H-MI I I -WT I I 

Him who is our Protector, Progenitor, Ordainer, 

Him who knows all places and beings, 

Him who is the one Assigner of names to all 
entities — 

Aye, Him all else that is, points to — 

As the One Enquired About. -Rig Veda, X. 82.3. 

A Theistic Body 

The first principle of the Arya Samaj is a declaration 
that the society which takes its stand primarily on it is before 
everything else a theistic body. Its belief in the existence of 
God is perfect. Neither atheism nor agnosticism nor even a 
tentative conviction in an imaginary supreme Being has any 
chance of being countenanced by its members. The Arya 

Ten Commandments Principles of Arya Samaj 
Samajist believes that God is, just as he believes that he himself 
is and the Arya Samaj is. 

The Source of True Knowledge 

The Arya Samaj stands for truth ; its inspiration of 
truth derived direct from God. Knowledge which is simply a 
realisation on our part of truth that exists in and outside us 
has, its ultimate root in the All-Knowing Parameshwara. Along 
with our evanescent conceptions of what is true and what is 
not, there is a constant body of known truth which exists in 
all ages and all climes. We may know it only imperfectly but 
the very fact that such truth exists implies that it should be 
known. If there were no truth, our quest after it were fruitless 
Our advancing knowledge in the spheres in which we seek to 
know truth, e.g., the sphere of physical sciences, is proof that 
truth is. It exists independently of us. When we affirm the 
existence of truth, we indirectly affirm also the existence of 
its inevitable background, viz., consciousness in which alone 
truth can exist. If we cannot know it wholly, some Being, 
with powers of comprehension superior to ours, must know it. 
That being is, according to the Arya Samaj, the All-Knowing 
Parameshvara. It is from Him that we get our first prompting 
to, and glimpses of, truth. Our intuitive knowledge in yogic 
vision is derived direct from Him today, as was all knowledge 
at the beginning of human creation received from Him by the 
primeval Rishis. 

The Facts of Existence 

Knowledge has its basis in being, i.e., being in its 
relational phase. In its last analysis knowledge is a cognisance 
of relations, special and temporal, or in one word physical, 
and more subtle than those spiritual, among beings and things 
that exist. Now these relations are not self-determined, but 
are subject to the initiation and control of the same All- 

77. Ten Commandments Principles of Atya Samaj 
Knowing Divinity. Not intelligent themselves, material 
substance or substances, cannot fit themselves, as they are in 
actual fact found fitted into an interrelated intelligently laid 
out universe. Nor can souls of limited capacity, whether 
viewed severally or as all combined, order into being a world 
spacious beyond their joint comprehension. Objects, as they 
are known, that is, their mutual relations which have fashioned 
them into things out of the primary substance of which they 
are temporal and special manifestations, owe their being ,to 
the all-pervading, intelligent activity of an omnipresent, 
omniscient, omnipotent God. To use a technical philosophical 
term, we believe God to be the efficient cause, as distinguished 
from the material cause, of the universe. 

Let us, for convenience’s sake, call these relations 
facts a, for such they surely are. These facts and their 
knowledge, which latter is simply a registration of those facts 
in consciousness, have their ultimate source in the same God. 
Thus, ultimately allied at their very root, true facts and right 
knowledge correspond to each other perfectly. This is what 
makes the one true and the other right. The Arya Samaj hits 
at the very essence of truth by emphasising the fundamental 
correspondence between reality and knowledge. Being traced 
to its eternal source viz, God, truth is, as it were, idolised. The 
God of the Arya Samaj is the God of Truth. Our religion, thus, 
is conviction in, and quest after, Truth. 

Ten Commandments Principles of Arya Samaj 

18 . 

The Second Principle 


Ishvara (God) is existent, intelligent, and blissful. He 
is formless, omniscient, just, merciful, unborn, endless, 
unchangeable, beginningless, unequalled, the support of all; 
the master of all omnipresent, immanent, unaging, immortal, 
fearless, eternal, and holy, and the maker of all. He alone is 
worthy of being worshipped. 

3 Tf 3 tT^n^Trg 55ft <wjni 1 Mfd^ ^1^: 1 1 

Pray only to Him who is one, 

The Looker after men, 

The manifest Lord — to Him of powerful activity. 

-Rig Veda VI. 45.16. 

God Personal 

In the 2nd principle are enumerated the 
attributes of Parameshvara. Beginning with the 
philosophical formula Sachchidananda Swarupa, 
meaning that His essential qualities are Existence, 
Intelligence, and Bliss, this principle, as it is couched, 
sets forth in clear terms that the Parameshvara, on 
whom the Arya Samaj rests its faith, is not an 
impersonal abstraction of Neo-Vedanta, but a personal 
being. The good qualities, which inhere in souls and 

79 . Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Santaj 
non-souls, do not in the aggregate make what may 
vaguely for purposes of meditation alone be termed God. 
God is an actual, a distinct being, in whom all good 
qualities both negative and positive inhere. Existence 
is, as we have seen, in His essence. It is His first attribute. 
He shares this attribute with souls and non-souls, but it 
is not their existence that may, by a feat of abstraction, 
be termed secondarily His. Existence, both His and 
theirs, is primary. 

God Defined 

The ancient philosophers of Aryavarta chose for 
what in logic would be called the differentia of God. This 
threefold characterisation, viz., Sat Chit Ananda i.e., 
existent, intelligent, blissful, because the final categories, 
into which they could resolve all beings, were three. God 
is, as are souls and non-souls. He knows, as souls know. 
The formula Sat alone could not have distinguished Him 
from the other two entities that are. Sat Chit would confuse 
him with souls, as they both are and know Sat Chit Ananda 
brings out both his similarities with, and points to difference 
from souls and matter. If He were the only eternal entity, 
simply Sat could have served the purpose of definition. 
The addition of Chit and Ananda would in such a case be 
superfluous. His distinctness and superiority in as much as 
He has their attributes plus His own are made explicit by 
the employment of a threefold formula. 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 20. 

The Three Eternals 

In case we posit the existence only of matter, the 
passing of inorganic matter into organic living 
substance remains a riddle. To the evolutionist the origin 
of life is an insoluble mystery. Life is eternal, it inheres 
in the soul. We can neither evolve soul out of matter 
nor matter out of souls. The two are independent 
entities, They are eternally independent. For if God 
were their joint origin, the attributes of God would 
inhere in them too, God is a spirit. How matter 
evolved out of spirit is inexplicable in the same 
degree as the converse hypothesis, viz., that matter 
evolved into spirit. God and soul are both spirits, but 
the theory of one transforming itself into the other is 
made untenable, among other things, by the riddle 
of the origin and end of sin. If God be the cause and 
soul, the effect, the tendency to, or to go farther to 
the root of the thing, the capacity for, sin could not 
have originated but from God, while if the converse 
be held as true, this capacity should at the time of 
transformation pass into God. As no theist would 
subscribe to these possibilities, it is philosophically 
rational and religiously reverent to believe in the 
separate, i.e., philosophically distinct, existence 
through eternity of three entities, viz. , God, Soul, and 
Matter, the Vedic Trinity of the Arya Samaj. 

God, a Spirit 

To return to the attributes of Parameshvara. 
We have shown God has a personality and that His 

2i ' Ten Commandments Principles of Ary a Samaj 

personality is not physical. He is a spirit of spirits, 
the Spirit Supreme. From all defects to which bodied 
spirits are heirs, He is of His nature free. He is not 
born. He does not die. He is changeless. He is 
unlimited. He is without a form. He is all'pervading — 
immanent in all that is. He is endless, infinite, 
incomprehensible even in thought. 

Merciful and Just 

He fears none and hates none too. In His love 
He combines the apparently opposite virtues of 
justice and mercy. He is merciful in that he provides 
for the souls all sorts of physical material with which 
to work while they live, and by means of which to 
get the fruits of what they do. Apart from what falls 
to their lot as the reward of their actions there are 
divine gifts, such as air and water, heaven and earth, 
the starry world above, the green fields below, which 
every individual, irrespective of what merit he has 
earned by his actions, enjoys. He would not be God 
if He were capricious in the dispensation of His gifts. 
Those who associate with mercy the power to 
withhold reward, which they erroneously call free 
will, may find some difficulty in accepting this 
conception of the Merciful. We believe His mercy is 
eternal ; it does not change. In adding to the common 
'fund of blessings, additional joys and sorrows for 
individuals, commensurate with their actions; the 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 22. 
Provident God is strictly just. Our repentance after 
sin lessens the rigidity of the tendency towards evil, 
which every perpetration of sin engenders and later 
strengthens. The hope to escape from punishment, 
the very idea that such a thing will happen, weakens 
moral stamina. The courage to face the consequences 
of what we have done is an indispensable part of moral 
strength and spiritual fortitude. The very justice of 
God is His disguised mercy. It is justice that manifests 
itself in the concrete shape of Law and it is on the 
face of it the Law that uplands the universe both 
physically and morally. 

Omnipotence Defined 

The omnipotence of God, too, is with us not absolute. 
He can do all things that agree with His nature as God, and in 
doing them He requires no extraneous help as God. The Laws 
of God are immutable. As does not practise capricious mercy, 
If we substitute cannot for does not, we seem apparently to 
restrict His power, while in reality we raise the conception of 
His nature above freaks, in as much as we think of His justice 
as justice absolute ane natural. The handicap which appears 
evideatly to be placed in this way on His will is in fact 
recognition of the unchangeableness of His nature. An unduly 
for-giving God has nothing to prevent Him from becoming at 
times unduly tyrannous. The latter possibility is simply a 
corollary from the former presumption. His mercies, if simply 
whims, will lack a uniform reliable rule to guide their 
dispensation. The very backbone of morality, viz., the faith 
on the one hand that the good we do is properly requited, and 
the fear on the other that the evil ‘we commit is adequately 

23. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
punished, will be instantly broken, if we once succumb to the 
presumption that prizes and punishments are regulated not 
by the desert of the recipient, but by the whimsical will of the 
Judge. Justice without a code is an untenable supposition 
even in the limited affairs of human life. Extend the 
conception to the affairs of the whole universe, and the 
impossibility of any theological position other than that of 
the Arya Samaj will be quite apparent. 

Maker, not Creator 

In the matter of making and unmaking the universe, 
too, the eternal laws of integration and dissolution, with which 
alone the conception of’ an eternal i esigner can be formed, 
regulate the processes of srishti and pralaya. What to a cursory 
observer will appear to be God’s inevitable necessity is in 
truth God’s unchangeable will. With the truly great, duty and 
privilege are synonymous terms. In the case of God these 
terms become absolutely interchangeable. Their synonymous 
charter is absolute. For, what are the laws ? Working symbols 
of Wisdom Divine. That they are inviolable signifies the 
absolute perfection of that Wisdom. Under this conception 
no miracles, either human or divine, are thinkable. Whatever 
takes place in the world of beings happens in the course of 
nature. Prodigies are a proof of the limited vision of the 
observer, a result of his incomplete knowledge. The effect, on 
the mind of the believer, of his conviction of God’s wilfulness, 
if such a perverse doctrine could be believed in, would make 
him either wilful himself or weak. For the possibility that the 
‘results he aims at achieving by obeying the laws of God’ 
may be upset by a small freak of what he erroneously regards 
as Will Divine, will rob him of the spirit of all confidence in 
the potency either of laws or of his faithful observance of 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 24. 
Meditation and Prayer 

Parameshwara is thus a unique conception in the 
religious creed of the Arya Samaj. Belief in Him fortifies the 
soul, while for realisation of Him within one’s self,, prayer 
and meditation are recommended to be performed at the hours 
of both morning and evening. The equitable God of the Arya 
Samaj will not, because of our outward flattery of Him, be 
inclined to show us extra favour. His inherent bounteousness 
and mercy leave no room for whimsical addition to them. 
Our constant prayer, dignified and sincere, as all prayers in 
the Vedas are, makes our resolve adamantine. Before putting 
forth practical exertion for the achievement of what we should 
righteously have, we place ourselves in communion with the 
Supreme Soul, the source of righteousness: Meditation of 
His immutable traits, first before we enter daily on our duties 
in life, and later after we have firmly or infirmly stuck to 
them, or else have disregarded the voice of both our own soul 
and the Supreme Soul in practice, gives us an opportunity of 
casting an introspective glance within ourselves. It places us 
at dawn and sunset, both hours of serious thought, in a position 
to imbibe as much as we can of His supreme virtues. Constant 
progress on the path of goodness in accordance with the well- 
known adage “As a man thinketh so he becometh” is the goal 
of meditation and prayer, which conjointly we call Sandhya. 

Adoration of the Formless 

For adoration the Arya Samaj recommends meditation 
of the Formless — Nirakara. Idolatry, instead of smoothing bars 
the way of worship. Beginning with the sincere devotion of 
lovers which finds concrete expression in stone images, 
embodying in them some serene beatific mood of some sacred 
prersonality, this system of adoration of higher men has later 
an invariable tendency to degenerate into gross formalities, 
in association with which social and moral evils prevail. 

25. Ten Commandments Principles of Ary a Samaj 
Recitation of verses from the Vedas, reflection over the varied 
concepts of God presented in them, and an attempt to embody 
them in our own character, is the way to approach the presence 
of the Supreme. The Mantras are fixed for the adorer, lest his 
mind, left upon its own resources, should wander without aim 
and grasp nothing worthy to be imbibed. This last 
contingency, if not prevented, will surely unhinge him. The 
Mantras of the Vedas are the light on the path to start with. 
Their glow increases both in its bewitching intensity and the 
range of its mental enlightenment, as the adorer fixes his 
mind day by day on their ever-broadening import. 

According to this principle, adoration in the sense of 
devotional worship is due to Parameshvara alone. No man or 
amimal, or for that matter any other creature, can take the 
place of Parameshvara, Nor is Parameshvara Himself believed 
to be born in the form of one. Incarnation of God is thus an 
untenable doctrine under the creed of the Arya Samaj. So is 
idolatry and fetish-worship. 

God of the Arya Samaj is infinite. He is personal, and 
therefore no vague or visionary being. He knows no forms 
and is, therefore, above comprehension. You meditate on Him, 
His personal character affording the basis for meditation. This 
meditation never ceases, as the formless ever widens the scope 
of the meditative exercise and yet eludes the attempt at full 
grasp. The felicity of meditation is inexpressible and yet there 
is always a hankering after more. The thirst is unquenchable. 
Its ever-increasing intensity is, strange as it may seem, in its 
very growth, a balm infinitely soothing to the soul. 

Ten Commandments Principles of Arya Samaj 26. 

The Third Principle 


Vedas are the scripture of true knowledge.. It is the 
first duty of the Aryas to read them, teach them, recite them, 
and hear them being read. 

3T13H Hpch^cii fluid Hrl ^ {HNAliqnH I dtldpH I I 

We break no rule, O wise men ! 

We keep none of the rules concealed. 

We act upon the teachings of the Verses. 

-Rig Veda X. 164.7. 

How Knowledge First Came 

The third principle combines in its outlook the 
teachings of the first two. We have been taught what God is 
(Principle II). We have been taught also in what philosophic, 
i.e., congitional and devotional relation we stand to Him 
(Principles I, II). The supremacy of man among all terrestrial 
beings takes its rise from his capacity of acquiring systematic 
and progressive knowledge. Now the ultimate source of that 
knowledge, without whom it would be impossible to form a 
philosophical conception of knowledge absolute, i.e., truth 
which cannot be gainsaid, is as the first principle affirms, the 

27. Ten Commandments Principles of Atya Samaj 
All-knowing God. In the third principle which we shall now 
expound, the agency of transmission of knowledge from God 
to man is, in due course, pointed out, in as much as this 
principle lays its finger on the primeval repository of revealed 
knowledge, viz, the four Vedas. 

Science Eternal 

Science, as knowledge systematised, has existed 
among ,men during all the aeons of their earthly life. The 
amount of true, i.e., scientific knowledge possessed by man 
in different ages in different climes has surely varied, but the 
fact that in all epochs of human history he knew science 
cannot be denied. The proposition of the evolutionary 
hypothesis, that humanity has, from the day of its origin, 
been progressing in the discovery and application of the laws 
of science, is believed by the testimony of excavations going 
on in different parts of the earth. Even nations that are today, 
because of their present barbarity, which consists mainly in 
their ignorance of modern arts and appliances of the 
specialised type,, misnamed primitive, are by archaeologists 
declared on the irrefutable evidence of geological finds, 
which are bringing to light the ancient cultural wealth of 
their pre-historic forefathers, to have had a glorious past, in 
no way inferior in the lustre of its enlightened development 
to the present scientific glamour of any up-to-date civilised 
country of the world. 

Intellectual Evolution a Myth 

Mr. Jones Bowson, writing in the New Age for 
November 1921, traces briefly the recent cultural fall of man 
in some of the historically most conspicuous lands on the 
face of the globe. Writes he : — 

“If the history of mankind is upward evolution, why 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 28. 
should the Chinese have known of gunpowder and the Mariner’s 
compass before the Christian era and have lost them again ? 
Why should we see today only the pitiful traces of the 
splendours of the Mogul empire in the palaces and tombs of 
India ? Why should the Hindu race have gone backward for 
400 years ? Why should Angkor in the Cambodia and 
Borobodur in Java be pointed to-day with amazement ? Why 
should the very art of manufacture of the enamelled tiles of 
the Empress’ summer palace in Peking and the method of 
working the colour into the walls of the Almambra at Granada 
be lost arts which perished with the ancient Moors ? Why 
should the Egyptians be ignorant of the arts of astronomy 
and mathematics which enabled them to erect the great 
Pyramid of Cheops upon the principle of squaring the circle 
and at the point where it should absorb its shadow at noontime 
at the vernal equinox? By what methods in the absence of 
hydraulic machinery were the gigantic stones lifted into their 
palaces at Karnak and Palmyra ? What caused the loss of the 
artistic knowledge which produced suns of the marvellous 
gold and feather work of the Aztec and lost the very knowledge 
of the location of the wonderful ruined cities of Central 
America ? Surely any one who is a Masonic seeker after truth 
must recognise that the progress of mankind is really only in 
certain directions interlaced with retrogressions and decadence 
in others.” 

The Evidence of Archaeology 

Recent archaeological discoveries have carried tthe 
origin of man to millions of years back hence. The Samvat of 
the Aryas to-day is, meaning that the 
appearance of man in the present cycle is so immemorially 
old. Let us cite here only a few evidences of science 
establishing the hoary antiquity of man : — 

29 . Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 

“In Nevada, that wonder-house of Dame Nature’s 
relics, John T. Reid has discovered a human footprint and 
well made shoe-sole, which he claims to be five million years 
old, from his geological knowledge of the rocks in which it 
was imbedded. Mierophotographers and analytical chemists 
of the Rockfeller Institute have shown the stitches, the twist 
of thread, holes for sewing and ‘size of the thread — finer 
than we use to day for shoes, and stronger. This shoe-sole 
was accompanied by footprints of dinosaurs and their bones. 
Professor Reid and his associates are to be congratulated on 
their careful scientific analysis and their generous 
recognition of the age and excellence of the work, and the 
product of as high a skill as is exhibited at Lynn, or 
Brocktons. Massachusetts.” 

“From the Colorado Rockies comes another recent 
discovery, a figure claimed to be of pre-glacial man, represented 
as seated, with a tablet on which are drawn characters and figures, 
which Mr. Jeacon, Curator of the Colorado Historical and 
Natural History Society, declares, are the most remarkable 
likeness of dinosaurs he has ever seen. The signs and face 
resembled those of the Aztecs. Professor Van Tuyl believes, 
the statue and the rocks, near which it was found, date back 
to archaic times. 

Red-headed skeletons in Arizona and beautifully 
wrought golden images recently found in the Ohio Valley, 
the American Valley of the Kings, where King Tut’s western 
contemporary is being sought, cause archaeolo-gists to echo 
the words of Katherine Tingley, that America is older than 
Egypt, and of increasing numbrrs who claim its civilization 
was once superior.” (Herbert Cooke in the Theosophical Path 
for August 1923 ) 

In the issue for October 1925 of the same monthly the 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
report of the Doheny Scientific Expedition to the Hawa Supai 
Canyon of Northern Arizona, published by Professor S. 
Hubbard, Curator of Archaeology of the Oakland Museum, 
Oakland, California, was commented on by ‘Student’. We make 
these excerpts from his highly interesting article : — 

“There is one account of handsome polished pestle 
picked up by an expert out of the old Pliocence rivergravel 
in Calaveras country which admittedly cannot be explained 
away by any theory except deliberate fraud on the part of 
the geologist, and that the suggestion has not been offered.” 

“The famous image from Narupa, Idaho, is another 
puzzle which defies the theory of man’s recent appearance on 
earth. This little clay statuette was brought up from a depth of 
320 ft. during the boring of a shaft through Tertiary rocks, and 
it seems impossible to deny that it is about as old as the 
Calaveras remains.” 

“Then there is the problem of the pottery found 
beside a mastodon’s tusks and horses teeth at Charleston 
and the pottery and scattered bones at Vero, Florida, and the 
boleadoros from the Argentine, polished stone balls with 
cut grooves resembling those used today in pairs for 
throwing down fleeing game which Professor Senet and his 
colleagues of the University of Buenos Aires are sure are 

“The pictographs are made in an unnsual way : 
instead of being painted on the rocks, they are incised by a 
sharp tool through a very hard block of coating on the 
vertical red sandstone cliffs, called locally “desert varnish,” 
and formed by the action of a trace of iron in the strata. They 
stand out in vivid red upon the black back-ground. Owing 
to their position they were difficult to photograph and a 
platform standing out from the cliffs had to be made to get 

j / Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
good results.” 

’’The three most important drawings represent, 
according to Professor Hubbard’s opinion, an elephant 
attacking a man, a group of ibexes and an animal quite 
evidently intended to represent a dinosaur, the well-known 
Diplodocus with its long snakelike neck and powerful tail.” 

“To appreciate the significance of these pictographs, if 
the interpretation of their outlines given by Professor Hubbard 
is correct — and he is firmly convinced that no other is 
reasonable — it should be understood (a) that it is not considered 
established that man in America was contemporary with any 
kind of elephant (which Professor Stauffer, Geologist at the 
University of Minnesota, recently declared had possibly 
disappeared 100,000 years ago, (b) that the ibex is unknown as 
a living animal in the western hemisphere, and (c) that the 
dinosaurs are believed to have disappeared in the Cratacasus 
Period at the end of the Age of Reptiles, not less than from seven 
to ten million years at a conservative estimate.” 

The elephant, ibex, and dinosaur carvings were not 
the only significant figures observed, on the same wall were 
a row of symbols, very deeply cut and resembling the 
astronomical symbol of the planet Mars. Professor Hubbard 
says, “desert varnish had commenced to form in the incisions, 
indicating an unbelievable antiquity, an antiqnity greater 
than the others. These symbols may be of great importance, 
an evidence of the race which recorded them.” 

Man Civilised from the First 

These discoveries testify not only to the fact that 
man existed as early as, and possibly even earlier than, tens 
of millions of years ago, but also that his primitive life was to 
a very high degree cultured and refined, so much so that he 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 32, 
was proficient in some of the most modern civilized arts. He 
was a good draftsman, sewed shoes more finely than even his 
descendants do today, and could manufacture polished and 
glossed balls, pickets, etc. etc, 

The Egyptian Wonder 

Pictorial drawings seen within the tomb of an 
Egyptian Pharoah, at a depth inaccessible to solar lunar light, 
have compelled scientists to recognize that ancient Egyptians 
possibly knew the use of electricity, as any other light known 
today should have produced smoke and soot, of which there 
is no vestige on the walls of the tomb. 

Minoan Civilization 

Glimpses of ancient corporate social life, led in a 
manner no less civilised and artistically tasteful than today, are 
obtained by a study, among other things, of the facts recorded 
by archaeologists who have been at work in Crete, the ancient 
seat of Minoan civilization. Sir Arthur Evans in his presidential 
address delivered before the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science in 1916, recounted some of these 
discoveries. He said; — 

“The marvellous Minoan civilization shows that Crete 
of 4,000 years ago must unquestionably be regarded as the 
birth-place of our European civilization in its higher former 
But are we even then appreciably nearer to the fountain-hend? 
A new and far more remote vista has opened out in recent years 
and it is not too much to say that a wholly new standpoint 
has been gained, from which to survey the early history of 
the human race. The investigations of a brilliant band of pre- 
historic archaeologists, with the aid of representatives of the 
sister sciences of geology and palaeontology, have brought 
together such a mass of striking materials as to place the 
evolution of human art and appliances in the last quaternary 

jj Ten Commandments Principles of Arya Samaj 
period on a far higher level than had even been suspected of 
previously — certain investigations have revolutionised our 
knowledge of a phase of human culture which goes so far back 
beyond the limits of any continuous story that it may well be 
said to belong to an older world.” 

Speaking of the Paleolithic frescoes executed with 
consummate taste and skill in pitch dark caverns by the aid of 
engraved stone lamps he observed : — 

“Such was the level of artistic attainment in 
south-western Europe at a modest estimate some 10,000 years 
earlier than the most ancient monuments of Egypt or Chaldea. 
Nor is this an isolated phenomenon. One by one 
characteristics, both spiritual and material, that had been 
formerly thought to be the special marks of later ages of 
mankind, have been shown to go back to that earlier world.” 

“It is difficult indeed in a few words to do adequate 
justice to this earliest of European civilizations. Its 
achievements are too manifold. The many-storied palaces of 
the Minoan priest-kings in their great days by their ingenious 
planning, their successful combination of the useful with the 
beautiful and stately, and last but not least, by their scientific 
sanitary arrangements far outdid the similar works, on however 
vaster scale of Egyptian or Babylonion builders. What is more, 
the same skilful and commodious construction recurs in a 
whole series of private mansions and smaller dwellings 
throughout the island. The modernness of much of the life 
here revealed to us is astonishing. The elaboration of the 
domestic arrangements, the staircases, storey above storey, 
the front places given to the ladies at shows, their fashionable 
flounced robes and jackets, the gloves sometimes seen on the 
hands, or handing from their folding chairs, their very 
mannerisms as seen on the frescoes painting, their conversation 
with animated gestures — how strangely out of place would it 
all appear in a classical design !” 

Ten Commandments Principles of Arya Samaj 
Sindh Marvels 

34 . 

The latest excavations at Harappa in the Punjab and 
at Mohen-jo-daro in Sindh point also to the same conclusion. 
Writes Sir John Marshal, Director General of Archaeology in 
India : — 

“The drainage system in particular is extraordinarily 
well developed. Every street and alley way and passage seems 
to have had its own covered conduits of finely chiselled brick, 
laid with a precision which could hardly be improved on.” 

“What is particularly striking and not a little 
anomalous about these finds is the great disparity in the 
quality of their technique. Rough flakes of chert for example 
which served as knives scrapers have been found in hundreds 
all over the site and these utensils are as crude as such objects 
could well nigh be. But mingled with them and contrasting 
strangely with their primitive appearances are finely made 
objects of gold and blue faience and exquisitely engraved 
seals, such as could have been turned out by people possessed 
of marked artistic ability as well as great technical skill; while 
the construction of the buildings themselves is far superior 
to anything of its kind in later India.” 

“Most of the buildings are divided into good-sized 
room, furnished with their own wells and bathrooms, floored 
over with brick, and provided with covered drains connecting 
with larger drains in the side streets. The existence of these 
roomy and well-built houses and relaxely high degree of 

luxury seem to be taken a social condition of the people 

much in advance of what was then prevailing in Mesopotamia 
or Egypt.” 

“The gold ornaments are so well furnished and so 
highly polished that they might have come out of a Bond Street 
jeweller’s of today than from a prehistoric house of 5,000 years 

35 . Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
Science and Language Concomitants 

That man led a highly cultured life even in such prehistoric 
ages as tens of millions of yeare back hence is thus established 
beyond the possibility of a doubt. Our next proposition in this 
connection, which will elucidate our hypothesis, is that language 
and science progress together. Of scholars, who have made this 
subject a life-long study and whose opinion on it is accepted as 
authoritative, we shall quote the observations of only two. Says 
Max Muller in his “Lectures on the Science of Language” : — 

“We never meet with articulate sounds except as wedded 
to determinate ideas, nor do we ever, 1 believe, meet with 
determinate ideas except as bodied forth in articulate sounds. N, 
therefore, declare with conviction, whethre right or wrong, as 
explicitly as possible, that thought in the sense of reasoning is 
impossible without language.” Vol. 11, p. 62. 

Schelling too, is reported as having expressed the same 
opinion : — 

“Without language it is impossible to conceive 
philosophical, nay even any human, consciousness.” 

Language a Human Necessity 

And without consciousness there could have been no 
intellectual life, which every advance in culture by its very nature 
implies. Not a people on earth that does not speak. Language is 
as old as man. Where thought has degenerated and become 
meagre in content, language has of necessity grown poor. The 
existence, among a section of humanity, of types of expression 
signifying a higher state of cultural life than the people 
actually lead is a sure sign of there having been among them 
a higher cultural past. Some very backward people like the 
Thonga, a Negro tribe living in South Africa, are reported to 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
possess a language fairly rich in its variety of expression 
embodied both in grammatic forms and words. Henry A. Junod 
observes in his “The Life of a South African Tribe” : — 

“The power of classification of the Bantu mind (as 
evidenced by the classification of names in their language) 
is certainly not inferior to that of the Aryans.” Vol. II, p. 141 . 

Speaking of verbs he says : — ”An endless number of 
combinations is thus rendered possible” Vol. II, p. 141. 
“Descriptive adverbs . disclose a wonderful power of 
description.” (II, 143 ). “The faculty of elocution among the 
Thonga is very great.” (II, 153). “Negro languages are not 
inexpressive, they are rich in their way. They excel in 
discovering spiritual truths in material facts or rather in 
perceiving the relations between the spiritual and the external 
world.” Vol. II, p. 154. 

Origin of Language 

This shows that language is co-eval with man. Similar 
instances may be adduced ,to any number, but they will 
encumber the thesis. Let us now see whence language at the 
outset comes. Philologists who have tried to trace the origin 
of language have failed so far to account for the appearance 
of this what is justly regarded by them as a miracle of 
humanity. Two alternate theories are put forward to explain 
this phenomenon, imagined somehow to have occurred in 
some early era of human history. The first of these is the theory 
of mutual agreement. According to this theory man was at the 
origin mute. His earliest means of expression were gestures 
and conscious and unconscious alterations of countenance. 
As human thought progressed and became gradually too 
complex to find expression in gesticulation and facial 
distortion, words were by mutual agreement decided upon to 
convey ideas. This is the theory of Locke followed by Adam 

37. Ten Commandments Principles of Arya Samaj 
Smith and adopted with adaptation by Stewart. We share Max 
Muller’s failure to understand how without language complex 
ideas could have been first formed, and then the comparative 
merits of words, suggested to convey them, discussed. 
Another theory is the theory of onomatopoaea. The pooh- 
pooh and the bow-vow are two allied forms of a single 
hypothesis. Language was framed according to this theory in 
imitation of the natural sounds made, or of interjectional 
exclamations uttered spontaneously, under the predominance 
of a sudden feeling by things and animals respectively. The 
absolutely insignificant fraction which such words form of 
any language, and the inability to explain by means of them 
the formation of the bulk of its vocabulary, is the most obvious 
refutation of this theory. Max Muller agrees with the Nairukta 
School of Indian philology in tracing words to roots. His own 
opinion as regards the origin of language that language at 
the beginning was a divine gift. He subscribes also to the 
theory of a common origin of all languages. At p. 93, Vol. II, 
of his “Lectures on the Science of Language” he remarks:- 

" It is the object of these lectures to prove that 

language is not a work of human art.” 

“If you wish to assert that language has various 
beginnings, you must prove it impossible that language 
could have had a common origin. No such impossibility has 
ever been established.” Vol. II, p. 2. 

“The 400 or 500 roots which remain as the 
constituent elements in different families of languages are . 
..phonetic types produced by a power inherent in human 
nature. They exist, as Plato would say, by nature, though 
with Plato we should add that when we say ‘by nature’ we 
mean ‘by the hand of God.’ Vol. I, p. 401. 

Ten Commandments Principles of Arya Samaj 33 . 

Max Muller’s Theory Examined 

Max Muller thus believes that in the beginning there 
was a common repository of roots, out of which all peoples 
formed, in accordance with the promptings of their inner 
experiences and outer surroundings, their varied languages. 
Of positive evidence there is none in support of this 
hypothesis also. Man even in the most backward cultural age 
is nowhere found to meet his. lingual necessity simply by 
means of roots. As instruments of speech, roots are far more 
difficult to handle and manipulate than words derived from 
them. The conceptions conveyed by roots are absolutely 
abstract. Was primitive thought simply abstract ? For if word 
and thought are simultaneous developments, which, as we 
have shown, is Max Muller’s conviction, then according to 
this last proposition of Max Muller the subtle ideas, which 
roots can stand for, should inevitably precede those gross 
ones which derivatives from them denote. To us the process 
of denotation and connotation appears to have proceeded 
together in the incipient consciousness of man. The easier 
process is that of naming things which to be intelligent, must 
have, as its background; simultaneous apprehension of the 
connotative intent of the names applied. God named things, 
qualities and actions, and connected the names in the minds, 
in the primitive stage, of men and women, with roots. To these, 
therefore, all languages exhibit the capability of being 
reduced ultimately. The primitive speech of man appears thus 
to have been a full-fledged language with noun-forms, verb- 
forms, prefix and affix forms, etc. etc. Roots could not have 
served the purpose of mankind in the beginning, nor could 
we have simply by means of roots learnt how to develop out 
of these, words, clauses, and sentences. If uniform roots could 
be revealed to humanity, what was there to prevent ready- 
made language from being revealed. The latter is, on the face 
of it, a simpler, a more probable hypothesis — a hypothesis, 
too, which seems to answer human necessity more naturally. 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
Vedas, the First Book 

From of old the belief has obtained among Aryans 
that the revelation of God’s knowledge, which could not be 
but in God’s language, took place, when man was first made, 
in the form of the Vedas, viz., Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama 
Veda, and Atharva Veda. If the issue were to be decided on the 
basis simply of remotest antiquity of all records available, 
the verdict would naturally be in favour of the Vedas. Of all 
human records the Vedas are the oldest. The claim to 
constitute divine revelation has been put forward by more 
recent books too. But injustice to them it must be recognised 
that they point back, one and all, to an earlier writ, which, 
they invariably declare, is their primal source. Among mankind 
there has been a tradition to refer back to a past, when man 
was in communion with God. Those same commandments it 
is the professed mission of every new apostle to promulgate 
again, as age has tampered — so it is given out — with the truth 
of the former promulgation. Now every promulgation is 
referred to as The Book and if it could be proved (I) that the 
Vedas are not only the oldest of all available human books 
but are a record so remotely antique that between their 
antiquity and that of later records there can be no conception 
of temporal relativily, and (2) that their text has been 
scrupulously preserved through incredibly long ages, the 
theory that they are divine revelation will acquire greater 
acceptability, as according with the voice of universal 
tradition and fulfilling the demands of the philosophical 
necessity pointed out above that man should, in the beginning 
of his mental life, be endowed with divinely revealed 
knowledge through divinely revealed speech. 

The Age of the Vedas 

Since the day of Dayananda scholars in the East as 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 40 _ 

well as in the West have been busy making continuous research 
into the contents and history of the Vedas. The conclusions 
they have arrived at as regards the age of the Vedas may be 
briefly set forth as follows 

(1) Professor Max Muller places the compilation of 
the whole Vedic literature before 400 B.C., this last being the 
date of the rise of Buddhism. The Vedic literature is divided by 
him into four strata, viz., the Chhandas, the Mantras, the 
Brahmanas, and the Sutras. The more common and to us the 
only acceptable division is that which combines Chhandas 
and Mantras into one stratum. This is the natural, the 
traditional division. Assuming that the evolution of human 
intellect in the primitive epochs should, for what reasons it 
is not known, have been much swifter than in later ages. 
Professor Max Muller assigns a period of 200 years for the 
development of each stratum, this carrying the earliest 
composition of Vedic Chhandas as early as 400 plus 4 (200)- 
1200 years B.C. (A History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 
572). Later considered this estimate too low and adds to it in 
his ‘Chips from a German Workshop’ three hundred years 
more, thus, pushing the date to 1500 B.C. This computation 
is, on the face of it, vague and arbitrary. And yet Professor 

Max Muller is of opinion that “the Veda will take and 

maintain for ever its position as the most ancient of books in 
the library of mankind.” (Max Muller’s Rig Veda Samhita, 
published in 1875. Preface, page X.) 

(2) According to Professor Macdonell, ‘the 
history of ancient Indian literature naturally falls into two 
periods. The first is the Vedic which beginning perhaps as 
early as 1500 B.C. extends in its latest phase to about 200 
B.C.’ (A History of Sanskrit Literature). 

(3) A. Weber places this period in the sixteenth 

41, Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
century B C. (Indische Strifed, p. 8.) 

(4) The method followed by Dr. Haug for the 
estimation of the age of the Vedas is the same as that of Max 
Muller, excepting only that he assigns a period of 500 years 
to the formation of each literary stratum. He thus places the 
commencement of the Vedic literature of 400 plus 4 
(500)=2400 B.C. 

(5) B.G. Tilak finds that the astronomical data 
supplied by the Vedas themselves, viz., geographical and 
astronomical hints in the hymns, pointing to the beginning 
of the solar year, which according to him was then reckoned 
from the vernal equinox in Orion and prior to that in Aditi, 
indicate that the time to which this phenomenon belongs 
could not have been later than 6000 to 4000 B.C. The 
description of continuous dawns, an Arctic phenomenon, is 
to him additional evidence that these records refer to inter- 
glacial or pre-glacial periods, when the Arctic regions were 
habitable. These traditions, may have been incorporated into 
the hymns, according to him, in the post-glacial epoch, whih 
geology places at the lowest estimate at 8000 B.C. 

(6) N.B. Pavagi bases his view as regards the 
antiquity of the Vedas on the same geological data as Tilak. 
He vacillates among many figures ranging from 16,000, the 
beginning of the last glacial epoch to 2,40,000 years back 
hence, when the tertiary epoch and, according to Dr. Cook 
the glacial age, closed. The beginning of the post-Vindhyan 
epoch which coincides with the Cambrian in Europe, of which 
relics are found in the lowest geological stratum in India, and 
features of which, Pavagi thinks, are spoken of in the hymns, 
is another landmark in geological history which impresses 
Pavagi as the possible data of the material contained in the 
Vedas, viz., from 7,00,00,000 to 6,00,00,00,000. years back 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 42. 
hence. (The Vedic Fathers of Geology by N.B. Pavagi). 

Vedas Co-eval with Man 

(7) A.C. Das declines to place the abode of the 
primitive Aryans in the Arctic regions on the evidence 
adduced by Tilak. He reconciles the phenomena recorded in 
the Vedas with the geographical conditions of a tract of land 
extending in a past geological epoch in the north to the 
Northern boundary of Eastern Turkistan and in the south as 
far as Rajputana, beyond which there was. on both sides the 
sea. To him some of the descriptions in the Vedas appear to 
refer to such configuration of land as, according to geological 
hypotheses, could have existed ‘in the Miocene or the 
Pliocene epoch whose age is to be computed by some hundreds 
of thousands if not millions of years.’ (Rig Vedic India, p. 21). 

This, it is to be noted, is also the time, as regards 
which A.C. Das finds there is available the earliest geological 
and archaeological evidence of the existence of man. “It may 
therefore be surmised that man also existed in the Miocene 
or at any rate in the Pliocene epoch... This surmise has received 
a strong confirmation by the actual discovery of relics in an 
upper Miocene deposit in Further India.” 

Thus, Vedic research advances the antiquity of the 
Vedas ever farther and farther into the past. Latest theories 
tend to affirm that the Vedas are not only the oldest record of 
humanity but are a record co-eval with the earliest appearance 
of man on earth. The belief of Indian theologians as regards 
the antiquity of the Vedas is thus finding greater and greater 
support at the hands of scientific research. 

Vedas Preserved in Pristine Purity 

As regards the second condition for recognising the 
present text of the Vedas as the true primeval revealation, 

43. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
viz., that it should have been faithfully preserved, we have 
the unanimous testimony of all scholars, eastern and western, 
to the effect that the Vedas, as we find them, differ in no 
material particular from their original text. Very old copies of 
the Vedas in manuscript have been collected and collated 
and they show no great differences. Writes Max Muller : — 

“As far as we are able to judge at present we can 
hardly speak of various readings in the Vedic hymns in the 
usual sense of that word. Various readings to be gathered from 
a collection of different manuscripts now accessible to us 
there are none.” (Rig Veda Samhita, Vol. I, page XXVII). 

Space forbids enumeration in detail of the devices 
adopted by the Rishis to safeguard the letter of what they 
regarded as the word of God, against alteration, interpolation 
or omission. Says professor A A. Macdonell 

“Extraordinary precautions soon began to be taken 
to guard the canonical text thus fixed against the possibility 
of any change or loss. The result has been its preservation 
with a faithfulness unique in literary history.” (A History of 
Sanskrit Literature, p. 50). 

The Repository of All Sciences 

That a record so antique and so scrupulously guarded 
against change teaches marvellous truths about science, 
1 . For instance, on p. 43, he says : — 

"Elsewhere we have established that is the Vedic 
expression for what we call experimentation. The 
directions that the embody are, therefore, such as will 
enable us to perform scientific experiments which, 
when accomplished, communicate to us the 
Knowledge of the Laws of Nature." 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 44. 
philosophy, ethics, theology, religion — in short all that man 
feels the impulse to know, is in itself quite a convincing proof 
that the Vedas are a superhuman treasure of knowledge. It is 
not possible within the scope of this dissertation to adduce 
evidence in detail to testify to the inculcation by the Vedas 
of elementary truths of all branches of science, positive and 
abstract. As A Wallace, te co-disco verer with Darwin of the 
evolution hypothesis, states at page 14 of his ‘Social 
Environment and Moral Progress’ : — 

“If we make allowance for the very limited 
knowledge at this early period, we must admit that the mind 
which conceived and expressed in’ appropriate language such 
ideas as are everywhere apparent in these Vedic hymns, could 
not have been in any way inferior to those of the best of our 
religious teachers and poet — to our Miltons and our 

Maeterlinck only sums up in a few sentences what 
Pavagi has stated in a volume, when he says at pages 95-97 
of his recent book “The Great Secret” : 

‘Was it, for example, mere chance that decreed that 
the earth should proceed, take shape, and be covered with life 
precisely in the order which they described ? According to 
the “Laws of Manu” the ether engenders the atmosphere ; the 
atmosphere transforming itself engenders light ; the 
atmosphere and light giving rise to heat produce water ; and 
water is the mother of all creatures.” 

“Almost all the foregoing, let us remember, is long 
previous to Buddhism, dating from the origins of Brahmanism 
and is directly related to the Vedas. Let us agree that this 
system of ethics, of which I have been unable to give more 
than the slightest survey, while the first ever known to man, 
is also the loftiest which he has ever practised.” 

45. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 

Readers eager to study the story of the gradual 
descent of all religions from the Vedas are referred to Ganga 
Prasad’s luminous little book. “The Fountain-head of 
Religion”. Those interested in physical science may consider 
the suggestive statements of P.N. Gaur in his “The Introduction 
to a Message of the Twentieth Century,” as also articles bearing 
on this subject which have been appearing from time to time 
in the Vedic Magazine, Lahore. More enlightening in this 
regard than all these books is the 'Rigvedadi Bhashya 
Bhumika’ of Dayananda himself, translated into English lately 
by Pt. Ghasi Ram, M.A. The sage has given an outline of the 
teachings of the Vedas, indicating the incorporation in this 
primeval scripture of subjects as widely varied as Theology, 
Sociology, Ethics, Metaphysics, Architecture, Mathematics. 
Astronomy, etc. etc. 

Our Duty 

It is this Veda, which, the Arya Samaj lays down, is 
the repository of all truth, and which, therefore, it is the 
primary duty of all Aryans to study and teach, to recite and 
hear being read. This one principle distinguishes the Arya 
Samaj from all other cosmopolitan societies of reform and 
redemption. The Arya Samaj has before it a particular 
programme, a definite formula of right and wrong. This 
programme is as old as man and as lasting as humanity. As the 
intellectual outlook of humanity widens, the verses of the 
Veda seem to present a vaster and vaster horizon of material 
and spiritual significance, so from the merest dullard to the 
greatest genius all can study this primeval scripture with 
equal profit — in the sense that the benefit, which the reader 
derives from it, is commensurate with the keenness of his 
intellectual acumen. It is on this account that all classes of 
human beings have been declared to have a right — and an 
equal duty — to study and profit by the Vedas. To the research 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 4( K 
student it is an inexhaustible mine of research. To the man of 
immediate action it is an unmistakable clarion call of pressing 
duty. Scientist finds in it endless veins of scientific 
experiment. The Yogi meets with infinite vistas of occult 
experience. The Vedas are the book of both high and low, 
both learned and ignorant. 


Ten Commandments Principles of Ary a Samaj 

The Fourth Principle 


One should always be ready to accept truth and give up 

WT M'dlMPd: I I 

The Lord of people sees through both the forms. 
He makes distinction between truth and untruth, 
He has set apart incredulity for untruth, 

And faith for truth. 

-Yojur Veda. XIX. 77. 

Truth : its Fourfold Criterion 

Having by the first three principles defined what it 
means by truth, the Arya Samaj lays stress in the fourt on the 
supreme duty of every individual man or woman to stick to 
truth and forsake untruth. Truth with the Arya Samajist is not 
what is declared by the majority of his fellow beings to be 
true, nor what his untrained conscience prompts him to accept 

Ten Commandments Principles of Arya Samaj 
as intellectually believable or practically adoptable. Among 
the masses, who compose the majority, ignorance is common, 
and their verdict, if accepted as the criterion of truth, would 
upset all known notions of right and wrong. The scientist, to 
be sure of the accuracy of the results at which his experiments 
in the laboratory arrive, will instead of observing their 
character minutely with his own (eyes, have to refer every 
problem to the rabble who are non-scientists. How ludicrous 
! Equally ludicrous, too, is the proposal to decide questions 
of moral propriety or impropriety by having recourse to ballot 
or some other device for guaging the view of the majority. 
The voice of conscience is a result of prepossessions, which 
environments of individuals in both this and previous lives 
have contributed to form. An average man brought up as a 
Muslim regards it his religiotis duty to slaughter animals on 
the day of Id, while another who has from his infancy lived 
among Jains or Vaishnavas alone, has, as it were, an instinctive 
horror seeing living beings killed. Not only the practice but 
also the moral outlook of different persons on the various 
vital problems of life — the outlook which sanctions or 
condemns this or that practice, is different. There are men 
who with the most innocent of intentions commit wrong. 
There is nothing to be said against their honesty. The fault is 
with their judgment, which has not had the opportunity ot 
being trained aright. Some excuse wrong on the plea of 
ignorance. To them innocent intention is the whole content 
of morality. Without in the least questioning the paramount 
importance of intention in ethics, it may yet in the interest of 
judiciousness be pointed out that this view of right and wrong 
conduct ignores the viewpoint of the victim of the wrong. 
The most pious intention of a tyrant would not detract from 
the pernicious effect of his tyranny on him who happens to 
be its poor target. No earthly government would condone a 
crime on the ground that the act, though intended otherwise, 

49. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
it not intended as such. An attitude such as this on the part of 
the judiciary will give a Fillip to perversity of judgment. The 
same rule applies to the realm of morality. Right judgment is 
as much a factor in righteous conduct as the most honest 
intention. Kant was right in regarding the notion of right 
among human beings as ultimately a divine prompting. God 
has implanted in man not only a vague sense of love of right 
and aversion to wrong, but also indicated to him exactly what 
conduct is right and what conduct is wrong. This innate moral 
sense were a superfluity, if side by side with it there did not 
exist a definite code of righteous and unrighteous behaviour. 
That code is, according to Manu, of a fourfold character. The 
voice of the inner monitor, or according to some the caution 
not to do to others what yon cannot endure being done to 
yourselves, the example of higher personages, their writings, 
and the injunctions of God Himself in the Vedas, are the four 
criteria, arranged in the order of increasing importance. 
Implicit obedience is taught to the injunctions of the Vedas. 
The meaning of the divine behest, it is the business of the 
individual’s own intellect and conscience to find out and 
follow. Even the greatest men fail to perform in its entirety 
what they preach. Their teachings are, therefore, assigned a 
higher rank among tests of righteousness than their practical 
conduct. Yet it is their practical conduct which is generally 
found to be a most faithful commentary on their written or 
spoken teaching. The four tests are in fact interrelated. You 
may dispense with one at the cost of all others. The sifting of 
truth is a complex process. The Arya Samaj has by stressing 
the transcendental importance of the Vedas, as the ultimate 
authority on which is true and right, made the process definite 
and easier of accomplishment. The Veda is the text, the other 
criteria are, as it were, commentaries. 

Truth and Untruth, Absolute 

The Arya Samaj does not confuse right with wrong 
by declaring that they are simply relative terms. That in the 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 59. 
right actions of men there may be an element of wrong, and 
vice versa, on account of the extreme difficulty of keeping 
the two factors rigidly aloof in praciice, may be at once 
conceded. What is nectar to one man, may be poison to 
another. Viewed in the light of their results as affecting the 
welfare of .different persons differently, our actions may at 
the same time be beneficial and pernicious. Or what in its 
results is benevolent, may in its intention have been wholly 
malevolent and malicious. To sift the minute threads of right 
and wrong in the complex fabric of an accomplished course 
of conduct is a most difficult job. To undertake the job, while 
the action is yet in progress, is still more difficult. Yet the 
threads are there, and if each thread could be laid bare in its 
true perspective by the performer of the acticn, who as the 
weaver of the fabric has alone an intimate knowledge of its 
components, a competent ethicist could readily determine 
their righteous or unrighteous character. Impiety, whether in 
intention or in deed, is not piety in the embryo. Violence is 
not a step to non-violence, hatred not a preparation for love. 
Wrong is not right in the making. The two may become 
confused when their respective motives come practically into 
play ; in their conception they are distinct, and it is neither 
right nor useful to speak of them as different forms of the 
same principle or quality. ‘Despise not the wrongdoers,’ is a 
counsel of love. ‘Despise not wrong’ is a counsel of downright 
immorality. ‘Try to reform the wrong in others’ is a homily of 
humanitarian charity. ‘Look on it as right in an incipient 
stage’ is a sermon to adore evil, which is tantamount, in its 
most insidious form, to giving latitude to the advances of 
Satan in others and by and by in one’s self. With Dayananda 
truth and untruth are distinct conceptions, the one to be 
adopted and adhered to, the other to be shunned, and if by 
mistake adopted to be immediately renounced. 


Ten Commandments Principles of Ary a Samaj 

The Fifth Principle 


One should do everything according to the dictates 
of Dharma, i.e., after due reflection over right and wrong. 

3jt3R^VH tNHHd tl I 

Discriminating, 0 King, between truth and untruth, 
attain to the lordship of My Empire. 

-Rig Veda. X. 124. 5. 

Right Knowledge, a Duty 

In our exposition of the Fourth Principle we have 
anticipated Fifth Principle. The latter is an exhortation to 
practise what the four foregoing tenets have taught us to regard 
as right. Between belief and practice there should be perfect 
concord. Right knowledge precedes right action. Unconscious 
virtue is simply action, not virtue. Not so unconscious vice. 
It affects others prejudicially. It is mischievous in its results. 
The harm it does, there is no reason to condone. Right 
knowledge is a duty, not a privilege. Its absence cannot help 
in redeeming the sin to which it may have perchance led. 
Between unconscious immorality and deliberate sin there is 
a difference only of outlook. The latter is more culpable but 
the former is no less serious in its social sequels. 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
The Irreducible Minimum of Individual Right and Duty 


We pointed in the introductory chapter that the 
principles of the Arya Samaj concern themselves equally with 
the individual and collective duties of mankind. What has 
been inculcated in the first four principles is the path of 
dharma for individual men and women. From sixth to tenth 
will be principles of social, i.e., communal; religious, national 
and cosmopolitan conduct. Fifth Principle stands between 
the two groups facing Januslike both ways. Conduct is both 
social and personal and to decide whether a particular course 
of conduct is in consonance with the dictates of duty, one has 
to fall back on the primary consideration whether that course 
conforms to, or falls foul of the interests of truth. Though in 
the interests of society the personal interests of individuals 
have if necessary, to be sacrificed, a distinction has to be 
made here between the material and spiritual interests of man. 
The latter, as outlined in the first four principles, are the 
inalienable minimum which no member of the society, 
community, country, and humanity, will under any 
circumstances be required to forego. The Arya Samaj ist will, 
for instance, on no occasion give up his belief either in God 
or in God’s revelation, the Vedas. Nor can he part with his 
right to say his prayers to Parameshvara whose salient 
characteristics are delineated in the Second Principle. The 
duty to read and write, teach and listen to a recitation of the 
Vedas is equally sacred. The truths taught by the Vedas, as a 
matter of his personal conviction, and as the foundation 
further of his personal practice, are to be his inviolable 
sanctuary giving him inner solace which no compromise with 
his fellow-beings can ever deny him. This granted, he is to 
place himself unreservedly at the disposal of humanity. 
Knowledge of right and wrong followed by conduct 
conforming thereto is what in Arya religion is called dharma. 
And the object of the principles of the Arya Samaj is to teach 
that dharma. This term occurs in its most appropriate place 
in this principle. 

53. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
The Man of Sacrifice 

No man is fitted to serve his fellow-beings who has 
not made himself first a man of principles Only such people 
as have firm convictions and a will equally firm to execute 
them are qualified to enlist themselves as servants of mankind. 
Despicable sham to make indifference to religion a condition 
of national service! Religion has till now been the only 
mighty lever that has upheld humanitarian activity. To all 
causes of uplift of Man it has given a sacred orientation. It 
has made charity a holy principle, self-sacrifice a heavenly 
virtue. Misguided religion has led to fanaticism and 
superstition which in their turn have in the long run been 
causes of bloodshed and war. It is the business of religion to 
prove safeguards against such perversities of religious 
dogmatism. Not all dogma, however, that obsesses the human 
intellect. Belief in God and the Veda is, as we have shown, the 
minimum philosophic requisite of the rational 
cum-devotional nature of man. It is a demand, from within 
and must be satisfied if the worker is not to waver at every 
step as he proceeds on his life’s voyage. The Veda to him is a 
chart and God the unerring pilot of his boat. Truth, the voice 
of his trained conscience, is the needle of his mariner’s 
compass. With this equipment let him launch out undaunted 
on the troubled waters of humanitrian, Tian service. Success 
will hail him as her lord, her eloved mariner. 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 


The Sixth Principle 


Doing good to the whole world is the primary object 
of this Society — to ensure, i.e., its physical, spiritual, 
and social uplftment. 

criloh "T 1 ! 

Make the universe perfect. 

-Yajur Veda. XII. 54 

Social Duty 

While the first five principles lay down the duty of the Arya 
Samajist towards himself, the principles that follow are 
addressed to the Arya Samaj as a whole, and to Arya Samaj ists 
as members of the Samaj. The mission of the Arya Samaj is 
universal. In the sixth principle, i.e. the very first that deals 
with the Samaj as a body, the object of establishing the 
Church of the Veda is pointed out to be to promote the welfare 
of the whole world. What a broad conception of human and 
sub-human brotherhood ! The mind of the Rishi was 
overflowing with love. The pettyminded quarrels, between 
one caste and another, between one creed and another, 
between one colour and another, galled him deeply. With 

55. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
one stroke of his pen he abolished all these distinctions as far 
at least as his own following was concerned. The Arya Samaj ist, 
as soon as he signs the creed of his Church, feels himself, as a 
matter of course, to be connected in ties of humanitarian love 
with all the citizens of the world. The Church to which he 
belongs is confined to no single clime or country. Its charitable 
outlook extends over all communities, all countries alike. 
Not simply members of that Church, but others also deserve 
on his part the same attitude of sympathy and affection. The 
upakara of the Arya Samaj is for the whole Samsara, not 
reserved for its members alone. And the least hesitancy of 
tone or expression in this principle may have cribbed the 
very soul of the Arya Samaj, crippled its human outlook, 
confined its liberal universal programme. In India where for 
centuries sea-voyage had been taboo, caste reigned in its most 
tyrannous foims, and untoucha-bility and unapprochability 
were the order of the day, this broadminded conception was 
novelty. It was an ingenious hit, a sally of the Seer’s soul. The 
principle, as it is worded, is in its simplicity most perfect, 
something which it will always be impossible to improve 
upon. The humanitarian outlook can be no more broadened, 
the impetus to fraternity can goad no further. 

Physical Welfare 

With his characteristic conciseness the Founder of 
the Arya Samaj makes his idea of upakura — upliftment- 
definite. It is explained briefly as covering the physical, 
spiritual, and social welfare of the world. Religions generally 
ignore the physical side of human growth. Some think this 
phase of life is mundane and therefore beneath the notice of 
heaven-born religion. Religion, they hold, should concern 
itself with the things of heaven alone. Our physical body is 
the vehicle of the spirit. It is its instrument, the very basis of 
its worldly and other-worldly activity. If that is deranged the 
average spirit will not be able to live or work. Dayananda 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 54 
gives the weight of the body of both man and animal the 
foremost place in his religion. Charity should look after the 
physical needs of its recipients first. Such measures should 
be taken by the corporate activity of the citizens, as will tend 
to the physical betterment of the race. The extirpation of 
disease, the lowering of the death-rate, and the popularisation 
of the idea and methods of physical culture, the training of 
citizens in habits of clean living etc., are items of social civic 
work, to which every philanthropic society of men and women 
should address itself. To the Arya Samaj these activities appeal 
as the first rung of the ladder to the terrestrial heaven which 
it aims at bringing into being. 

The Arya Samaj, after its brief career of social 
activity, has at its back in this behalf no mean record of social 
service. Many orphanages and widow homes stand to its 
credit. Many a famine, many an earthquake, many a flood 
has found the Arya Samaj ist busy rehabilitating its helpless 
wreck. The misery of a whole world requires the service of 
whole humanity. And what we are depicting to-day is the 
social ideal, not the actual achievements of this society or 
that. The achievement is only an infinitesimal part of what 
remains to be done. 

What is the Soul ? 

To understand what is meant by the welfare of the 
soul, it is necessary first to form an idea of what soul is. 
Every living being is a soul. Every soul is eternal, a distinct 
entity. It is neither evolved from God, nor will it evolve into 
God. All the intellectual activities of man and animal are due 
to it. As a matter of fact, psychic and physical phenomena 
belong to two different planes, between which there is 
nothing common. Mental experiences and nervous 
movements take place side by side, but there is no intelligible 
way of explaining one set of phenomena in terms of the other. 

57. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
Besides, there take place interactions between two living 
beings which cannot be ascribed to any physical agency. Of 
these telepathy is the most pronounced. Cases have been 
reported of the death-scene of a relative presenting itself with 
all its actual surroundings in detail before the mental eye of 
a kinsman at a distance dividing countries and even 
continents. Prof. Ramadeva of the Gurukula, Hardwar, was 
the year before last in Africa when his son-in-law died at 
Lahore. The former had a vision of the latter’s death and tried 
to evade the tragic feeling, created by the presentiment, by 
immersing himself heart and soul in his public activities. 
The vision would not be dismissed till news from India 
confirmed the previous intimation, in all presumption, of 
the soul. The ability to go on thinking even when the brain 
has been removed or has turned, on account of some physical 
disorder, into a mere abcess is another evidence of the distinct 
existence of the soul. Camille Flammarion in his “Death” 
and its Mystery’ Vol. I, pp. 38-39, gives the following 
instances of this metaphysical power of the soul : — 

“My learned friend Edmond Perrier presented to the 
Academy of Sciences, in his lecture of December 22, 1913, 
an observation of Dr. Robinson’s concerning a man who had 
lived for nearly a year with almost no suffering and with no 
apparent mental trouble, with a brain that was nearly reduced 
to a pulp and was no longer anything but a vast protext abcess. 
In July, 1914, Dr. Hallopean brought to the Society of Surgery 
the account of an operation that had been performed at the 

Necker Hospital upon a young girl at the trepanning it 

was ascertained that a large proportion of the brain marter 
was reduced literally to pulp the patient recovered.” 

“We communicate, by means of our vocal organ, 
through the auditory nerves of a distressed man or animal, 
the voice of sympathy of our inner being. It has its effect. The 
distressed animal is soothed. Now neither the sympathy nor 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 5& 
the feeling of being soothed can belong to the physical 
machinery of the bodies of these two sentient beings. These 
two beings, viz the originator of the voice and its recipient 
are souls. They act on each other in a manner in which no 
physical substance could. Memory, dreams, the continuity of 
our knowledge, generalisation of concepts, classification of 
objects and notions, synthesis, analysis, association of ideas, 
illusion and hallucination — none of these can be 
demonstrated to be the effect of the activity or non-activity 
of physical organs alone. If dreams be the result of the activity 
of a part of the brain, while the remaining portion is at rest, 
the part which has been active should alone remember it. The 
co-ordination of experience of which the processes 
enumerated above are various forms, cannot be attributed to 
the same cells of the brain, to which simple perception is 
attributed. For, if this be possible, why should not the complex 
processes take place at once ? That there is a graduation of 
processc, from simple to complex, be tokens the inability of 
the physical organism, which is made of uniform cells, to 
accomplish all the processes on its own account. To unify 
and tabulate experience, one superior entity, distinct from 
the cells, has of necessity to be assumed as the receptive and 
coordinative agent. That is the soul. Some liken memory to 
impressions on photographic plates Was one plate ever 
observed to receive impressions of more than one scene 
consecutively and keep each imprint distinct and intact ? 
Nor can the brain, which also is one, accomplish this physical 
marvel. Memory in reality is a function of the soul. It relieves 
the brain to be always free for fresh photos. The storing of 
impressions is a spiritual process. So, too, is tabulation. 

After all discussions as to the existence or 
non-existence of souls, the notion of one’s own permanency, 
to which all other notions which come and go find invariable 
reference, persists. One may dismiss from one’s mind every 
other object, every other phenomenon, every other idea, every 

59. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
other impulse ; the one entity that cannot be so dismissed is 
one’s self. The self is the soul. How the first appearance of life 
in the simple unicellular amoeba can be accounted for only 
by postulating the distinct existence of souls has been shown 

The soul is eternal. How to impress the idea of its 
own creation on a soul is a mystery. The very first moment 
that the soul was aware of itself, it was. How then to teach it 
that at some time it was not ? If there is anything absolutely 
inconceivable, it is one’s own nonexistence, whether in the 
past or in the future. The primary idea of existence, which a 
thinking being has, is of its own existence. The existence of 
no other thing can be conceived except as something like 
one’s own existence. The difficulty which the riddle of the 
origin and termination of sin presents, in case the creation of 
soul by God be admitted, has in the course of the exposition 
of Principle II been noticed. The soul ever was and ever will 


The method of inference in science is to proceed from 
the known to the unknown. We know how the soul exists. 
From this we may infer how it existed before and how it will 
continue existing in the future. In the 'present span it is born, 
lives, and dies. The same it has presumably been doing before 
and will do hereafter. The liability of the soul to a change of 
its physical tenement, as it progresses or retrogresses in its 
spiritual march, is in philosophy called transmigration. All 
born inequaities, physical, mental, and moral, that we find 
among living beings, can be explained on the basis of this 
hyphothesis alone. Pre-destination makes God unjust. 
Fatalism makes life a pre-ordained drama. The only reasonable 
solution of the mystery of ante-natal differences in capacity 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj ( } () 
and equipment is to refer ‘ them to ante-natal differences in 
exertion which alone, under a just God, could have resulted 
in unequal fruit, viz., unequal equipment at birth. 

Like the varied mental equipment possessed by 
human beings at their birth there are certain, what they call 
instinctive faculties in animals, such as those of organisation, 
recognition of a place once known, communication of it to 
fellow-workers etc. etc., among ants, those of building perfect 
geometric constructions, a judicious division of labour, 
artistic assortment, adaptation of temperature to changing 
requirements of weather, attachment to the hive etc. etc., 
among bees, and that of fine weaving among spiders, and so 
on . 1 

1 .The following evidence is extracted from ‘Life of the Bee’ by Maurice 
Maeterlinck : — 

“There are only” says Dr. Ried, “three possible figures of 
cells which make them all equal and similar, without useless 
interestices These are the equaliteral triangle the square, and the regular 
hexagon Mathematicians know that there is not a fourth way possible 
in which a plane shall be cut into little spaces that shall be equal, 
similar and regular, without useless spaces.” p 1 56. The bee constructs 

“Koening’s answer to the question (which would be the 
most economically constructed cell ?) was the cell that had for its 
base three rhombs whose large angle was 109 min. 26 sec. and the 
small 70 min. 34 sec Another savant, Moraldi had measured as exactly 
as possible the angles of the rhomb constructed by the bees and 
discovered the larger to be 109 min. 28 sec. and the other 70 min. 32 
sec. Between the two solutions there was a difference therefore of 
only 2 sec. It is probable that the error, if error there be, should be 
attributed to Moraldi rather than to the bees, for it is impossible for 
any instrument to measure the angles of the cells, which are not very 
defined, with infallible precision.” p. 157. 

67. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 

The efficiency, with which these faculties can be 
called into play by each individual or class of individuals of 
different species or even of the same species, differs in different 
cases. Now instinct, if it is an inherent quality, not a result of 
environments, should be constant and uniform in all 
individuals, at any rate within the same species, which, 
however, it is not. Instances are known of horses having been 
taught to extract cube root and of certain dogs having been 
named to write letters of the alphabet and tell the time. Is this 
instinct ?' 

Animals of the same species, for instance dogs, 
are seen to exhibit different stages of moral advance. This 
shows that they are souls and the fact that you cannot attribute 
these stages to different modes of breeding in this life is proof 
that they have been subjected to some similar influence 
before. Attributing all these things to chance is bidding good- 

Speaking of newer adoptions adopted by tnc bees of late 
the writer says : 

‘This great progress, not the less actual for being hereditary 
and ancient, was followed by an infinite variety of details which 
prove that industry, and even the policy, of the hive have not crystallised 
into uninfringible formulae. We have already mentioned the intelligent 
substitution of flour for pollen and of artificial cement for propolis. 
We have seen with what skill the bees are able to adapt to their needs 
the occasionally disconcerting dwellings into which they are 
introduced and the surprising adroitness wherewith they turn comb 
of foundation wax to good account. They display extraordinary 
ingenuity in their manner of handling these marvellous combs, which 
are so strangely useful and yet incomplete.” p 309. 

1. The dog was first taught to count by means of tapping with its 
paws, and various arithmetical exercises were then attempted and 
achieved with greatest ease. Lola then learnt to associate with sounds 
and the shapes of letters and thus to spell and express its thoughts in 
words, which were tapped out on its mistress’s hand. 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 62. 
bye to the instinctive faculty or reason which must look for 
the cause of every effect it observes”. The theory of evolution 
can never account for the appearance of highly specialised 
social virtues that we find in some species of animals, as in 
the lower species from which alone they could have evolved, 
these virtues are entirely absent; unless, of course, the 
advocates of this theory pervert their hypothesis and posit 
the previous existence of the present nerve-cells of these 
animals in the human body, where alone they could have 
specialised in civilised sciences and arts. Would this be 
evolution or the reverse of it, a stage in transmigration ? 

Infant Prodigies 

Children are from time to time born who are found to 
be masters of certain arts without receiving even a rudimentary 
training in them in this life. How to explain these phenomena 
except by the transmigration hypothesis? In the Occult Review 
for October 1915 Mr. Grahame Houblon recounted a few such 
occurrences that come in his personal experience. We reproduce 
only three : — 

“I have a photograph of myself taken before I was 
five, sitting on a tiny bare-backed pony, and the picture 
represents, not a child stuck like a pair of tongs on the pony’s 
back just to be photographed, but a child horse-man, with a 

Lola was taught to tell the time from a clock but so accurate 
exhypothesis was her sense of time that she was able to tell her 
mistress the time without consulting this instrument on which human 
beings have to rely. 

Her abilities on arithmetical problems I do not stress since 
in this respect she does not seem to have excelled the Elberfeld horses 
whose powers of mentally extracting roots seem to have been more 
highly developed than those of human beings, but her capability for 
ecasting the weather must not be passed over without mention.” Occult 
Review for April, 1923. 

fjj Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
perfect seat, holding his reins right, and obviously perfectly 
at home, as I always was on a horse-back from the first time 1 
got up, which if not the day before the photograph, may have 
been the day before that. I was able to ride by the light of 
nature, and all I have ever had to learn has been how to develop 
and improve what I have always known.” 

“Again I have always been a keen swordsman 
especially in the way of old styles of fighting, and at last I 
tried my hand on the two-handed sword, to use which one has 
to be strongly armoured from head to foot. Now, as when I 
first got up on a horse, so when I first put on armour 70 lbs. or 
80 lbs. of it, I felt perfectly at home in it, as if I had been 
wearing it all my life, with a full knowledge of its possibilities 
and drawbacks and of how to use the one and dodge the other. 
Also the moment I took the two-handed in my hands, I knew 
how to use it, and did so in a way which excited considerable 
surprise in a number of practised swordsman who were present, 
also in my adversary. Now it is merely silly for common sense 
to explain this by something. I had over heard said by great 
uncle Timothy or great aunt Clara. The only sane explanation 
for this perfect familiarity with armour and long sword on the 
first occasion on which I used them in this life is a memory 
from some past life, about four hundred years ago, when the 
two-handed was most popular.” 

“I must record another similar case in my younger 
son, which I noticed when he was six years old, on his first 
experience in life of boating. We had gone to Thames Lock in 
Canadian Canoe to see the boat go through, and had left the 
canoe drawn up on a little piece of foreshore below the back. 
When we went away put the canoe almost entirely in the water, 
leaving the extreme end of the bow on land. Then I embarked 
and sat down astern, leaving the boy ashore to shove off. I 
knew him to be a very resourceful child, and wanted to 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj ^ 
see. what he would do. What he did was significant to begin 
with ; he asked no question, but took hold so as to apply the 
utmost power with the least effort and shoved the canoe off. 
Then came the thing which gave me my surprise. Instead of 
being left behind, just at the right moment when he should be 
so without hanging the canoe up, again he jumped, landed 
comfortably and steadily on the bow of the canoe and slipped 
down into his place. The oldest, most practised hand at boat 
work could have done it no better. 1 may add that in general, 
from the first moment he was afloat, he showed himself 
perfectly at home in a boat, and never once did I know him 
commit any of the idiocies with which children usually terrify 
and infuriate their elders. He knew just as I knew how to ride, 
exactly what to do so in all ordinary circumstances in a boat.” 

Instances of child musicians, child preachers, child 
mathematicians are too familiar to need citation here. These 
prodigies compel attention to what an ordinary observer may 
ignore, viz , born genius which can be traced psychologically 
simply to exertion in previous life. 

Reminisceness of Previous Lives 

Individuals are found who bring with them 
reminisceneces of previous lives. The truth of their accounts 
has been tested, which in many cases have been found to 
agree with facts. The places they refer to and the persons whom 
they mention are found existing exactly as they describe them. 
This is proof positive of former and, on the same analogy, of 
following lives. 

The whole press in India was, a few days ago, resonant 
with what was thought to be the marvellous news of a girl 
born in September 1919. who in company with her father B. 
Shyam Sunder Lai, station master, Haldani, went on pilgrimage 
to Mathura. At Gokul, the girl, while passing by a house known 

65. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
as the old residence of Nanda, leapt out of the arms of her 
servant and ran to a building close by. She fortwith assumed 
the character of a boy and accosted an old woman, who was in 
the house, as his mother. She inquired about the desk where he 
used to sit. To her present mother she ordered a betel-leaf to 
be offered. This done, she asked the latter to leave, as he had 
got in the midst of his own. When out of that house, she 
pointed to a shark in the Jumna and declared it was this animal 
which had caused her (she said ‘his) death. The old woman, 
who had accompanied the party, wept as she recounted the 
incidents of the death of her late son in October 1918, and 
said that the reference of the girl was to that never-to-be- 
forgotten dismal happening. This is one of the instances, 
multiplying fast now-a-days, of rememberances of previous 
lives, brought into the present span of existence by infants in 
various localities in more then one country. 

Transmigration in Both Rise and Fall 

We have already remarked that the process of 
transmigration is one chequered amidst irregular alternations 
of progress and retrogression. It is neither evolution nor 
uniform degeneration. The existence of human traits among 
social species of animals could not be accounted for if the 
former alternative were true. The latter, viz., the hypothesis of 
uniform degeneration would stultify the irresistible impulse 
for spiritual rise, which alone justifies willing virtuous 
activity. One would not care to live if life were a continuous 
fall. We all look forward to a high state, which not achieved, 
we wish to live again and yet again and so on. Our ambitions 
do not find satisfaction at the end of only one life. If what we 
have been striving after is only a mirage, if all our activities 
are child’s play, if the partial achievements we make, while 
we once live, have no chance or chances of carrying 
themselves on to completion, incalculable surely is the 
wastage of energy of both God and man, who thus conjointly 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 66. 
are engaged in a wanton pastime without any serious end or 
object. The conviction that more lives are to come, just as 
they came in the past, can alone be the solace of the steady 
worker, handicapped in the middle by abrupt death Work 
acquires zeal, an earnestness which is inherent in the hope of 
its continuity, once' we give it an infinitely long period of 
duration. Failure of the present life cannot in that case daunt 
us, nor can unexpected successes elate our heart and make us 
take life easy. 

Heaven and Hell 

One of the natural equipments of the soul is freedom 
of action, It may rise if it works for its own uplift, or it may fall 
if it yields to the impulses that degrade it. Heaven and hell 
are of the soul’s own making. The species of animals in which 
some of the faculties of the soul are restricted, while a few 
perverse habits called bestial instincts, a result of misguided 
activity in a previous life or lives, are given an unrestricted 
chance of free play, in order to lead automatically to a reaction 
commensurately strong, are the tangible hell of the soul. Plants 
in which every possibility of free action is snatched away are 
reformatories, while birth in the midst of circumstances which 
their nature help the upward evolution of a rightminded soul 
is its heaven. The presumption that there are higher beings 
than man appears to us to be uncalled for, unless there be 
evidence of life which human and sub-human varieties of 
corporeal existence cannot explain. 


The highest state of the soul is that of salvation, when 
the recurrence of births and deaths is for the period of a Kalpa 
suspended. Temporarily in the corporeal state also the soul 
may detach itself from the body. This may be done by 
practising yoga exercises, till the state of utter dissociation 
from matter, called asamprajnata samadhi, is reached. That is 

67. Ten Commandments Principles of Arya Samaj 
the state of supreme biiss. The way to achieve it is the 
piactising of supreme morality and leaving one’s self in the 
matter of reward or result entirely in the hands of Providence. 
Evil thought, evil speech, and evil deed become at that stage 
an impossibility. Only good is done automatically as a result 
of habit doggedly persisted in. The soul is active ; so too is 
the body which encases it. There is no lack of enthusiasm or 
exertion. Only this attitude on the part of the yogi is 
unconscious. He does not feel his conduct is virtuous, for 
that would be self-complacency, a mild form of self-conceit ; 
and he naturally cares not for the result. Hilarity, ecstasy, 
nonchalance whether misfortune comes or good luck, an 
absolute spirit of self-renunciation, accompanied by a happy 
constancy of inner enjoyment of self is his unchanging mood. 
He is salved while living, and when dead, has only passed 
from limited enjoyment to enjoyment absolute. For organs, 
while they are on the one hand doors of consciousness, are 
on the other, walls of matter that block the vision of the soul. 
Bereft of all hinderances the . soul is then in conscious 
enjoyment of the close proximity of the Supreme Soul, whose 
essential attribute is bliss. The proximity is also transmission. 
As long as this Elysian beatitude lasts’ the soul is spiritually 
in the highest heaven. In the world of matter its passage is 
unrestricted ; and even from the objects which to others are 
the cause of bondage, it derives, by dint of its inner happiness, 
perennial joy in perennial liberty. 

What the Arya Samaj aims at ? 

To such a state, it is the mission of the Arya Samaja 
to carry whole humanity. If even a few souls were in every 
country to rise to these Olympian heights of human godhood, 
they would be the centres of social and political harmony 
and physical and mental peace. They will attract humanity 
by their irresistible intrinsic magnet. Their ever-brimming 
love would be a cent fugal force which will swamp whole 
nations in mutual affection and esteem. Exploitation of the 

Ten Commandments Principles of Arya Samaj 65. 

weaker by the stronger would then be a dream of the past. 
Tyranny of the shrewd over the instinctively simple would be 
an imaginary illusion, over which the serious and the sane 
would only laugh as over a mental obsession of mad people. 
Prejudices will cease. Truth will triumph and justice will reign. 
When in their private lives people will honour equity as 
conducive to their spiritual advancement, when shirking 
consequences of personal evil deeds will be a sign of 
weakness, an index to moral cowardice, they will not allow 
their social and political relations also to be stained by caste 
oppression or by perverse patriotism, which today is but 
another name of selfish love of national self-aggrandisement. 
A new heaven will be born and a new earth, over which the 
suzeranity will be not of kings but of ideals. The Vedas will 
be the code. The higher self of men and women will be the 
judge. Sins will be culprits, self-punishment will be the jail. 

A Social Heaven 

The dry-as-dust lawyer, the cold rigid logician, the 
prosaic tradesman, all matter-of-fact men of the world, will of 
necessity shake their heads as they go through the above 
picture of a future Utopia. A chimera ! A reverie ! A 
hallucination of the brain ! Call it what you will, it is the 
hope of the philosopher, the reassurance of the self-confident 
seer. The reformer once lost has re-found in it his bewildered 
cry. The mariner, all but drowned, sees before him the heaven 
of peace, after boundless seas of boisterous storms. It is the 
dawn of a new day. Happy they who see eye to eye with the 
Rishi. For they alone can be saved. What hope for those who 
have made themselves hope-proof ? 

69 . 

Ten Commandments Principles of Ary a Samaj 

The Seventh Principle 


Let thy dealings with all be regulated by love and justice, 
in accordance with the dictates of Dharma. 

tit ^ Ti^rg ■rt ^ i 

Pyd 1 1 

Make me beloved of the Brahmanas, 

Make me beloved of the Kshatriyas, 

Beloved of all that see, 

Of the Shudra and of the Vaishya. 

-Atharva Veda. XIX. 62.1. 

The Keynote of Human Behaviour : Love 

The behaviour of the Arya Samajist towards his fellow- 
beings is to be regulated according to this principle. 

The dominant feeling, which will characterise all his 
dealings with others, is to be that of love. He cannot, as has 
been taught in the last principle, help in promoting the welfare 
of the world, unless his general attitude towards other creatures 
than himself be that of deep sympathy, of close fellow-feeling. 
It should always be his endeavour to mentally substitute his 

Ten Commandments Principles of Arya Samaj jq % 

own person for those with whom he is dealing, so as to be able 
to gauge their feelings at a particular juncture, by what should 
have been his own feelings if he were similarly situated. This 
is the golden rule of inter-human and inter-animal conduct. 

Love Seasoned with Propriety 

Lest love should become a morbidity, a few riders, are 
attached to it. We read of men whom the popular mind honours 
and adores as saints, having lost all balance and capability of 
action when in the sight of erring fellow beings. Overwhelmed 
with feeling, their mind has found shelter immediately in tears. 
In not a few cases this outburst of profound pathos has 
succeeded in reclaiming the lost lamb, but instances are 
equally numerous or even more frequent where the mark has 
been overshot. Incidents are related from the lives of Sadhus, 
who have gone a step further in charity, in as much as they 
have offered their all to a thief, who had, because of a sudden 
stir or some other unexpected exigency, failed of his. criminal 
errand. The disappointment this failure will cause to a fellow 
human being, has gone deep into the mind of the bhakta 
owner, who, intolerant of such a mishap to a human brother, 
has gone after him to give him the prize, which his miscarried 
quest has not succeeded in gaining. Conversions, as a result 
of this method of apparently human conduct, are reported to 
have taken place. These, however, if the solicitude of the saint 
not to disappoint a human brother was genuine, are only 
chance occurences, credit for which should have belonged to 
the maudlin bhakta only if he had himself intended the 
reformation of his misguided brother. We are concerned, in 
cases of virtuous behaviour, more with the intention of the 
person concerned than with how he conducts himself 
practically If the offering of goods were a deliberate attempt 
to bring about redemption of the vagrant youth, the whole 
incident would acquire a new orientation. As the case stands, 
such gratuitous love cannot be ethically praised or recommended 

77. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Santa/ 
to others for imitation. More serious than deprivation of material 
booty should, in the eyes of a lover of human beings, be perversity 
of a fellow human being’s character Various, indeed, are the ways 
to bring about the litter’s reformation. Different temperaments 
will require different remedies. Exigencies of every individual 
case should be met by means which suit that case. Showing 
indulgence where indignation would be the proper attitude, 
showering favours where punishment would be the appropriate 
instrument of reform is, to be plain, abusing of love. 

Brahmana, the Paragon of Love 

The attitude at every juncture should be determined 
also by the character of the parties. It is character which 
determines, if not the occupation of a man, his place, at any 
rate, in society. According to the Aryan system, the community 
should be divided into four classes. At the head come 
Brahmanas, men of learning and peace. These it is that have 
the highest qualifications, mental and moral, but who being 
actuated instinctively by the motive of service of their fellow 
beings, have taken a vow of voluntary poverty. They are the 
most potent agency of reform, and their method is love. They 
feel with the delinquent, but not with his delinquency. The 
fact, not of the disappointment of a thief, but that of his 
vitiated mentality, that has prompted him to such a perverse 
course of conduct, makes them feel deeply concerned. They 
may offer to share with him their whole possessions, not that 
the greedy proclivities of his nature may have undue 
satisfaction, but that he may look beyond the contemptible 
considerations of mere ownership, earned or unearned. The 
possibility of bringing a culprit to book legally is not outside 
the pale of their judicious conception, though generally they 
should not resort to this executive method of reform. For 
themselves, if they be guilty of a similar deed, the punishment 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 72. 
is to be very severe. But here too, the measure of severity is 
not the physical form in which the penalty is administered, 
but the mental pain it inflicts. Highly refined natures are 
sensitive even to the fact of punishment, in their case you 
simply declare that they are guilty and you have meted out 
to them an adequate penalty. Where you find the perversity 
is more profound, you deal severely even in outward form. 

The Function of the Brahmana 

The function of the Brahmana in society is that of 
teacher, legislator, politician and judge. Being intellectually 
the flower of the community he is eminently fitted for offices 
from which he will give his community the lead in moral, 
spiritual, social and political matters. The laws he will frame 
are bound to be just. Intellectually he is an aristocrat, 
economically the poorest of the poor. He knows the 
necessities of the aristocracy and is daily experiencing in 
his own person the hardships of the poor. Labour and capital 
have found a concrete via media in him. For the same reason, 
too, he will be the best arbitrator. Having abjured wealth, he 
will have not the least bias towards the moneyed class. 
Possessing a high mental calibre on account of which he is 
conscious of the rights and necessities of capital, he will not 
be unjustly prejudiced against the bania. 

The duty of the physician and surgeon is also reserved 
for the Brahmana, in order to render impossible the exploitation 
of the physical ills of fellow human beings. If addicted to a life 
of luxury, the doctor will, of necessity, pamper the vitiated tastes 
of the vicious wealthy, neglecting the genuine need of the poor, 
whose disease, as it has sprung out of want or incidental injury 
to the system from uncontrollable circumstances in or outside 
the body, deserves the ministrations of the righteously 
inclined medical man first. The fee-first physician, however, 
has an eye not on the moral merit of his patient to a healed 

73. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
healthy life, but on the length of his purse, commensurately 
with which lengthens the list of intemperances and disease, 
engendering immoralities, both past and future. The Brahmana 
doctor, on the other hand, looks on his profession, by reason 
of his vow to lead an austere life, as a sacred opportunity of 
service. He can afford to forego high fees, as he needs very 
little for the satisfaction of his physical wants. He can impose 
a regime of temperance and moderation on his patients, 
however rich and high-placed, as he ogles not at their riches. 
He can enforce morals and come to the aid of his genuinely 
needy, viz. , the poor, or even rich people that have fallen ill 
because of a sudden mishap or conscious or uncon-scious 
negligence and are ready now to abide by the rules of health 
and hygiene. The patient, came to a physician for treitment, 
feels in the presence not of a dependent but of one superior to 
himself whose commands have got to be obeyed. This givss a 
new tone to the society’s notions of the necessity of preserving 
health and observing rules even of private personal morality 

Kshatriya : His Stern Functions 

The duty of administration and war falls on the Kshatriya. 
He punishes offences in accordance with the verdicts of the 
Brahmana. He keeps law and order. The world, as it stands, 
requires a class of society to be stern rulers. The life of the 
Kshatriya is also a life of austerity, less severe only than that 
of the Brahmans. Luxury would he the Kshatriya’s poison. 
His ambition is to achieve power, the acquisition and 
maintenance of which both require a hardy, painstaking 
temperament. Police, such as obtained today in London, and 
Army, such as obtained in India in the past ages, which kept 
fighting, while just in the vicinity of the field of battle 
peasants went on undisturbed, ploughing and tilling the soil, 
and peaceful activities of the towns were not at all dislocated, 
are two of the typical lines in which Kshatriya tendencies can 
have full play. Patriotism and love of liberty, for which all 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 74 . 

countries profess to wage war, are sublime sentiments which 
waifs and strays of the society, picked up as to-day for 
military life, can never understand. The Kshatriya. according 
to the Arya conception, is to be a man of high education, 
mental and moral, who had an adequate practical schooling 
in the essentials of social and ethical discipline. The business 
of the Police and the Army is to protect the persons and 
properties of citizens and safeguard the honour of males and 
females. Those that discharge this duty faithfully in the time 
of peace, cannot by the rcacon of their very training, visit 
tyrannies and outrages on the enemy’s subject when war 
ensues. Interests of humanity which are sacred in one’s own 
country should be sacred in other countries as well. For 
humanity is the same all the world over. 

The Political Ideal of the Arya Samaj 

The political objective of the Arya Samaj is to make 
every country self-governing. The society, as it is constituted, 
cannot take part in the current politics of any country. The 
teachings it imparts do, however, tend to breed in its members 
love of their motherland and a readiness to serve its righteous 
cause. The Arya Samajist cannot but be liberty-loving and 
free at once in thought, speech, and action. His political motto 
is to live and let live. He undertakes war only if others 
transgress this golden rule of international politics. 
Exploitation and foreign rule he will not allow, even when 
the armies of the transgressing nation have been defeated, 
and he is free to dispose of the throne in the subjugated land 
as he will. He will make his enemies feel his strength but will 
not reduce them to perpetual bondage, or what is more 
hypocritical, insidious tutelage. The victorious armies should 
at once evacuate when the administration of the conquered 
country has been placed instantly in competent native hands, 
and the observance, on the part of rulers, of international 
laws in future has been ensured. The conduct of the Arya has, 
as noted above, to be regulated by feelings of love in all 

75. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Santaj 
spheres. The Arya states should be as scrupulously fair and 
honest in their national and international affairs as the Arya 
Samajists in their private lives. The system of ethics which 
insists on personal probity among individuals but leaves the 
moral relations between states and communities untouched 
is an incomplete, an extremely partial system of human morals. 
Greatest sins and highest virtues are practised in the name of 
the state. State morality gives its colour to individual 
morality. Its scope is very vast and its effects extremely 
profound and far-reaching. 

Vaishya, the Repository of Wealth 

The banker and the landholder, who between them arc 
the distributors and producers of wealth, are the third social 
class under the Aryan system. Theirs is neither honor, such as 
the Brahmana receives, nor power such as the Kshatriya 
enjoys. Theirs is wealth. They are neither legislators nor 
administrators. They are repositories of the country’s stores, 
the arteries and veins which keep up the circulation of life- 
blood in the country’s body politic. The double control on 
them of the Kshatriya and the Brahmana will keep under 
proper check their vanity and selfishness, the two 
concomitants of wealth. 

Shudra, the Menial 

The lowest class is Shudra. Its duty is service and its 
privilege safety. The Shudra labours with the body, as unfit 
for any higher work by reason of his intellectual inferiority, 
which no provision by the state, though tried honestly and 
long, has been able to remedy. 

This Classification is Natural:How to make it Righteous ? 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj ~j(_ 
This classification is natural and obtains in rude 
haphazard forms in all countries, The population in all climes 
may be roughly divided into these four classes. The Arya 
Samaj would remove the injustices nnd irregularities which 
characterise the actual haphazard, and therefore erroneous, 
working of this system in the states of to-day. Birth caste in 
India and wealth caste in the countries of west are both abuses, 
equally pernicious, of the natural Vedic system of Varna. While 
self-denial in the person of the Brahmnna has to be installed 
on its old pedestal of highest honorability, the warrior has to 
be made hard-working and just and capital and labour both 
ousted from the citadels of power. For neither Capitalism nor 
Bolshevism can salve the nations. 

The keynote of the mutual relations of persons, classes, 
communtities, and nations must be mutual love. The object 
constantly to be kept in view, as pointed out in the foregoing 
principle, is to promote the physical, spiritual, and social welfare of 
the whole world. The means for the achievement of this object will, 
in cases of different persons and classes of persons, differ. Hence the 
qualification of the sentiment of love by addition of the formula 
yathayogya, i.e., in accordance with the condition and merits of the 
recipients.. These merits, again, have to be deteimined in accordance 
with the dictates of Dharma, which term, because of its exposition 
in the Fifth Principle, is now familiar to us as meaning what conforms 
to the rules of right. The reader will see how each preceding principle 
contains in it the seed of the one succeeding, so that one 
commandment follows another in its natural sequence. 

Our Duty in Relation to Sub-human Beings 

The duty of man does not end with his love of man alone. 
Standing at the head of all creation, he owes an obligation to sub- 
human creatures as well. His attitude towards these also should be 
governed by the same principles, viz., those of love, propriety and 
righteousness. While the first attribute, viz., love is to be the guiding 

77. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 

note o/"his inner motive, the second i.e. propreity will be the criterion 
in choosing the means, while considerations of righteousness are 
urged in order to refer him ultimately to the eternal code, viz., the 
Veda, the injunctions of which alone will give his powers of discretion 
the right lead. 


The Arya Samaj prohibits meat diet, as this is the temptation 
which is today the main incentive to kill animals. That 

1. Flesh food contains the unexcreted waste matter of the slaughtered 
animal. When the process of metabolism is suddenly arrested by death, 
the effete and decomposing cells and partly oxidized waste products, 
which are normally in the blood and muscle tissue, are left in the 
flesh. Moreover, while excretion and circulation arc stopped 
immediately upon the death of animal, the muscle cells live for some 
hours at least, until the animal warmth has left the flesh. These cells 
living after the death of the animal continue to produce animal poisons, 
and as there is no circulation to carry them off, they accumulate in 
much larger percentage than in the normal live muscle cell. Sun- 
cooked Food, p. 164. 

Carnivorous animals are especially, provided with an excretory system 
capable of taking care of such matter ; but it is unreasonable to expect the 
excietory organs of man, which are not adapted to such a purpose, to throw 
off, in addition to their own waste matter, similar, decomposing products of 
other animals. Ibid p. 165. 

Vegetable fats, which are of a more liquid nature, are more desirable 
where we wish to add fatty tissue to the body, than those of animal origin. 
Ibid p. 168. 

The most dangerous form of disease contamination from fresh 
flesh food is that of trichinosis. 

Tape worms have similar origin. There are several species, some 
being derived from pork and some from beef Tuberculosis is the most 
prevalent disease among animals, especially cattle. Ibid p. 170. 

A pound of breakfast contains fourteen grains of uric acid. 

A pound of liver contains nineteen grains of uric acid. 

A pound of the sweetbread (pancreas usedas food) contains seventy 
grains of uric acid. 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 7#. 
vegetables promote health and vigour better 1 , are more 
conducive to the formation of humane morals', and tend to 
sharpen the powers of mind, while pious people in all 
communities, engaged in esoteric exercises, are found to 
refrain for spiritual reasons from the consumption of all sorts 
of meat, are aditional advantages of strict vegetarianism, 
showing by the irrefragable testimony of actunl experience 
that animals are not by nature meant for food. No economic 
reason can justify the eating of meat, for it is not the 
economically needy but the monetarily rich and the morally 
voluptuous and self-indulgent that have on their table 
variously cooked viands mutton and beef and pork and eggs 
and fish etc. etc. If the pryblem were at all economical, the 
well-to-do would confine themselves to vegetable diet, 
lerving meat, which they say is cheap, for the poor. Among 
villagers, who naturally are, from the pecuniary point of view, 
the poorest class, we find very little consumption of meat. 
Even communities that have no religious scruple against 
eating meat do not find frequent opportunities of getting it. 
Eor the poor meat is a luxury The rich have made it a necessary 
of their lives. Authorities on economics, too, are agreed that 
all things considered, meat is a more expensive food than 
vegetable. 1 

The Duty of Self-defence 

Here, too, the Arya Samaj qualifies its insistence on love, 
laying pressure side by side with it on the desirability of 
adapting this golden sentiment to circumstances. Not absolute 

The following list of the maladies due to uric acid is copied from Dr. 
Haig’s great work entitled Uric Acid and Causation of Disease : Gout 
rheumatism, headache, epilepsy, convulsion chorea hysteria, neurasthenia, 
nervousness mental depression, lethaigy, vertigo, syncope, insomnia paralysis, 
asthama, dyspepsia, congestion of liver, glycosuria, diabetes, Bright’s disease, 
albuminuria, dropsy, gravel and calculus, neuritis, cerebral andspinal 
degeneration, local inflammations of all kind, appendicitis. ‘The 
Testimony of Science in Favour of Natural and Humane Diet by Sidney 
Beard, p 13. 

79. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
love, but love with an eye to propriety amidst existing 
conditions, is the Arya Samajic motto. Animals that are 

I have never yet seen a case of Appendioitis in a child who had 
never eaten meat. 

We can affirm almost with certainty that a vegetarian never contracts 
this malady. The cause of appendicitis is, therefore, flesheating. Ibid p. 15. 

So convinced am I of the value of diet largely composed of 
uncooked vegetables and fruits, nuts of course being included, that 1 have 
no hesitation in proclaiming that if a liberal supply of uncooked vegetables 
and fruits were included in our dietary, cancer would soon become a 
matter of history only. Ibid p. 17 

A series of experiments were made at Yale university by Prof 
Irving Fisher in 1906 and 1907 to test the relative endurance of flesheaters 
and flesh-abstainers. Forty-nine subjects were used, the flesh-eating ones 
being athletes and much care was used to obtain exact evidence with the 
following results: — 

In the contest of holding the arm extended, the maximum limit of 
the flesh-eaters (22 minutes) was barely more than half the average of the 
abstainers, one of whom held out for 160 minutes, another 17o and yet 
another 200 minutes. 

In deep bending of the knee the average of the flesh-eaters 
was 383 times and that of the abstainers 731 times. Ibid p. 31-32. 

If I am asked; ‘Did these people, who gave up eating meat, lose 
tone or become weaker ?', my answer would be that m the majority of 
Cases they confidently stated that they found themselves stronger and 
more powerful in body and clearer and more vigorous in. mind. Josiah 
Oldfield, D. C. I. N. R. C. S. L. R. C. S , Senior Physician of Lady Margaret 
Fruitarian Hospital, Bromley, in “Herald of the Golden Age October 1902. 

“To sum up all’ evidence of this point, it seems to me to show that 
with a non carnivorous die; intelligently and temperately followed, the immunity 
from, and power of resistence to. all diseased conditions are 
immenselyincreased, while the flesh-eater almost certainly becomes sooner or 
later the subject of degenerative changes directly due to his diet.” Robert Perks 
M.P.,F.R.C.S., in “Herald of the Golden Age.” 

I. For the relief of this depression (of the digestive system caused 
by the accumulation of uric acid, a result of taking flesh diet) more meat 
must be taken, and when meat begins to fail in causing sufficient 
stimulation, alcohol is added, when alcohol begins to fail, morphine or 
cocaine are called in, and so on down the road to ruin. 

Now vegetarianism cuts through the vicious circle at one blow, by 
making it impossible for there ever again to be any great excees of uric 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj #9. 
harmful to human safety may be killed or removed without a 
hitch. It is the duty of the Kshatriya to remedy this danger, if 
it has come to haunt the habitations of men. Even the Vaishya 
acid in the blood and as removing the cause of the depression which leads 
to the crazing for stimulants. Concernig Human Carnivorism, p. 67. 

The deepest, truest and most general causes of prostitution in all 
great cities must be looked for in the luxurious and intemperate habits of 
eating and drinking prevalant among the rich and well-to-do. Perfect Way 
in Diet by Anna Kingsford. M D p. 59. 

Is it morally lawful for cultivated and refined persons to impose 
upon a whole class of the population a disgusting, brutalising and unwhole 
some occupation; which is scientifically and experimentally demonstrated to 
be not merely entirely needless, but absolutely inimical to the best interests of 
the human race ? Ibid p.61. 

The life of an ox from the pasture to the butcher’s shop will not bear 
telling. One night on a cattle steamer would be enough for most of us The 

table brutalises and degrades a multitude of men whom society employs 

and shuns. To the craftsman, the tiller, the market-dealer any intelligence 
and virtue is possible. One might live in a worse place than Covent Garden 
and the booksellers do not seem out of place there, nor children in the way 
of much moral hurt, but the "meat market" Ibid p. 70 

It is certainly not difficult to understand that the stimulation and 
irritation produced in nervous centres by the constant ingestion of highly 
nitrogenised and exciting meat, influences the gential functions in a powerful 
degree and sets up a condition of pressing instability. Perfect Way in Diet by 
Anna Kingsford, M.D., p. 58. 

1. And the wellknown statistician Mr. W.Hoyle stated before the 
Manchester Statistical Society, that a shilling worth of flour or oatmeal or fruit 
or selected vegetabies would give as much nourish ment as five shillings 
worth of flesh, Concerning Human Carnivorism. p. 47. 

"If men feed wholly on beef, then four, five, or even seven acres for 
the cattle would not go so far in giving food to men as a single acre devoted 
to feed us by its vegetable crops. Moreover, in a region given over to grazing, 
a small rustic population suffices to tend the cattle, hence the rural acres are 
emptied of men, who are constantly driven out of the country into the town." 
"This is a grave national evil." Francis William Newman in his Essays on 
Diet, p. 129. 

81. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
is exhorted in the Atharva Veda to ward off the attack of 
animals that beset his path in trade enterprises. The use of 
violence in self defence is no sin, no moral or legal crime. 
This salubrious rule may be applied indiscriminately, whether 
the enemy be man or animal. Naturalists tell us, animals in 
their natural state exhibit no hostility to man. In the personal 
experience of the present writer there are instances of 
courageous men having crossed the path of a lion walking 
hither and thither, without disturbing his or their mental 
presence Wild beasts become furious when either they are 
disturbed or by previous disturbance they have become 
habituated to fierceness in the sight of man. Wanton tyranny 
should under all circumstances be avoided. Much will depend 
on the spiritual eminence which the man or woman, concerned 
in such conduct, has achieved. In the presence of a Yogi even 
natural enemies, such as dog and cat, snake and mangoose, 
lion and lamb, etc. etc. have been found to give up their 
inimical instinct. On the Yogi, therefore, absolute non- 
violence is enjoined. For the ordinary man the rule is laxened. 
Sin attaches to such conduct alone as is actuated by deliberate 
or wanton cruelty. On this point, too, the ultimate authority 
is to be the Veda, wherefore the provision in this principle 
that love, wedded to propriety, should conform itself in the 
last resort to dharma, i. e . , the injunctions of the Vedas. For 
every man to decide at the instant what it would be normally 
proper to do in the face of mortal danger would be extremely 
difficult. The least hesitancy or even a most momentary state 
of dilemma may endanger life. It is for this reason that training 
in the atmosphere of the Veda, so that Vedic principles of life 
should become a part and parcel of the student’s mentality — 
the motive force of his instinct, is laid abundant stress on. Of 
this more under the next principle. 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 


The Eighth Principle 


One should promote Vidya (realisation of subject and object) 
and dispel Avidya (illusion) ! 

3^ % ctiUcH -cRTt Trf 3FR# | 

I I 

Imparting knowledge to the ignorant, light to the 
benighted. Rise, ye, mortals, like unto the dawn. 

-Yajur Veda. XXIX. 27 

Nature and Nurture 

Educationists make distinction between the nature and 
nurture of a man. In nature they include traits which are 
ingrained in the individual. They are part of his being at the 
time of his birth. They may then be only latent, and when 
favourable circumstances arise, may assert themselves and 
take tangible form. Ere that they may not even have been 
noticed. Every individual has in him such apparently 
inexorable traits which differ widely in different persons. They 
constitute his nature and are thought to be impossible, at 
least most difficult to effacement. 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
Nurture : its Effect 

Nurture is a result of environments. This a man imbibes 
from outside. The way in which a man is brought up, and the 
associates with whom he mixes in his childhood and later, 
have a profound influence on his moral and mental mould. 
Sometimes the essential traits of his temperament are changed 
by introducing a change in the conditions, in the midst of 
which he lives. Always dogged by misfortune he has a 
tendency to become irascible. Never thwarted in the way of 
his progress, he may become elated and supercilious, and, if 
noble by nature, sweet and accommodating. 

Nature is Past Nurture 

Man is thus considered to be a combination of nature 
and nurture. The Arya philosophers, latest of whom came 
Dayananda, make no difference in the nature of individuals. 
Not that men are not born unequal and varied in their mental 
and moral equipment. The verieties, they show at the time of 
birth, are traced by them to nurture in previous lives. Souls in 
their natural endowment show only certain capacities. They 
can know, they can act, they can feel. The scope and potency 
of these capacities depend upon the mode and extent of their 
giving them an opportunity of free or restrained play. Free 
will is in the nature of man. He may be active or idle, either 
usefully or mischievously so. This, in the main determines 
his future character. His activities in one life, deliberate first 
and then a fraction of them unconscious, are the cause not 
only of his birth in the next life in this animal's body or that, 
but also of his efficiency as a free agent, with prepossessions 
and proclivities, good or bad or indifferent, in that new sphere. 
This a great portion of what materialists, or fatalists among 
spiritualists, regard as the nature of man is, to the Arya 
Samajists, his nurture extending over a number of lives. 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 

84 * 

Nature should be unchangeable. It is an absolutely 
inexorable factor in human, or for that matter, animal 
constitution. Reform which addresses itself to the rectification 
of the nurture of this life alone, has a very superficial job 
before it. The Vedas make the province of reform wider, they 
carry the scope of its effects deeper into the foundations of 
human character. Their conception of nurture would appear 
to be much too wide. It is nurture, a joint result of the exertions 
of the individual soul and the reaction they evoke from its 
surroundings, that makes temperamental differences between 
man and man, man and woman, woman and Woman. 

Education Begins in the Womb 

The idea of education which the Vedic science of 
training has before it is commensurately vast. Education, 
according to the Aryan conception, begins from the day the 
child is conceived in its mother's womb. The copulation of 
parents, of which the conception is the consequence, is a part 
of a sacrament, called the Garbhadhana, It is not at all sexual 
pleasure but the discharge of a parental duty, one of the most 
sacred human functions, that is the aim of the sexual act. The 
parents proceed to it with an aim. They inave, after long 
company in purity of love, resolved not only that they will 
have an offspring but also what sort of man or woman the 
intended infant is to be. The mentality of the father and the 
mother at, and before, the time of coition has a deep and 
lasting impression on the mentality of the coming child. What 
in common parlance is called the nature, but what we think is 
the previous nature of the soul that will be attracted to make 
the ovum of the prospective mother its abode, will depend 
upon the parents’ resolve — not only on their capacity, but 
the practical steps they take to translate that resolve into 
action. Aryan eugenics lays great stress on the regular 
performance of this samskara, in the course of which the seed 
of the sapling is to be laid. 

85. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
Education at Home 

After an interval of four months follows Pumsavanam 
or the virilising ceremony, and two months later the 
Simantonnayanam or the intellect-promoting ritual. These 
sacraments are to emphasise the special phase, to be taken 
particular care of, it each of these particular stages, in the 
development of the embryo. The ceremony which comes next 
is that of birth, or jatakarma. The mother passes through the 
ordeal of the delivery and the child sees his ‘ first light of 
day. His body made safe from all infections, the formula 
‘Vedosi- thou art the Veda’ is whispered in his ear, and the 
symbol Om, the proper name of God’ is painted with honey 
on his tongue. Thus is the name of God made sweet to him 
from his birth. The psychological effect of this process is too 
deep for words. It may be mentally brooded over and enjoyed. 
On the eleventh day after birth falls the naming ceremony. 
When a month and a half old, the child is taken into the open 
and brought in contact with outside air, with bright sunshine 
in the day, and cool moonlight in the night, this being, so to 
say, his first initiation into communion with nature.. Between 
the ages of 1 and 3 are performed the first barbering and 
piercing of the ears, both processes of medical virtue. 

At School 

At the age of eight takes place the investiture with 
sacred thread, followed by Vedarambha or commencement of 
Vedic studies. This, in other words, is the admission of the 
boy or girl into a Gurukula, family of the guru, as the Aryan 
schools of yore were called. From of old the educational 
institutions among Aryans have been residential. Specialists 
in the line of bringing up children. Brahmans whose aim in 
life is to disseminate true knowledge and enlightenment, 
imbued through and through with righteousness, should alone 
be in charge of these institutions. They accept pupils as 
members, as it were, of their own families. Their relation to 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 86. 
them is literally parental. The Veda places brahmachari in 
the womb of the-Acharya, meaning that the latter should be 
as solicitous, of the welfare of the disciple as the pregnant 
mother is of that of the embryo. Could tutorial care go any 
further ? The ‘camps’ of the United States of America, the 
agricultural schools of Sweden and the residential academies 
of other countries are only a partial modern realisation of this 
Vedic idea of Gurukulas. The sites are similar, so also is the 
paraphernalia. The difference is in the nature of the personnel 
of their staffs. The ancient Brahmanas are extinct — natural 
teachers and preachers, of highest morality and exemplary 
self-sacrifice, who- should work not for pay but should share 
with their pupils the food and clothing with which the 
community supplies them. When will the young hopefuls, 
reading to-day in schools, on whom the future of the country 
and humanity depends, learn their first lessons of human 
fraternity, if not during the scholastic years ? The development 
of the child, not only physical but mental and spiritual also, 
is the concern of the teachers. A regular programme of work, 
consisting of exercise, meals, study, prayers and other social 
and religious functions is to be observed. The diet is to be 
regulated by rules of health and of promotion of physique. 
The curriculum consists, in the beginning, of the three R’s 
and later of all sciences, positive and theoretical, as also of 
philosophy and religion. The motto is to teach every pupil 
something of everything and everything of something. This 
course is to be compulsory for all children, male and female. 
The attitude of the Vedas towards physical science and mental 
and moral philosophy has among all religious books of the 
world been unique. Claiming to be the repository of the seeds 
of all sciences, the Vedas have never come in conflict with, or 
even looked askance at, discoveries of new truths. It is for 
this reason that the history of the Vedic religion is absolutely 
free from religious persecution and fanatic bloodshed. While 
the progress of science in lands, where the Vedas have been 
the accepted scripture of the people, has always been 
phenomenal, not a single scientist there has had the 

87, Ten Commandments Principles of Atya Samaj 
opportunity of winning glory as a martyr. To the Vedas, sciences 
and philosophies are appended as Upa-Vedas, Angas and 
Upangas, i e., subsidiary studies of the Vedas themselves. 
Arthaveda-economics, Dhanurveda-military science, 
Gandharvaveda — music, and Ayurveda — medicine are, for 
instance, Upavedas, and Phonetics, Grammar, Prosody, 
Astronomy, Rituals, and Exegetics are the Angas, and the six 
systems of Philosophy the Upangas of the Vedas. This very 
harmony between, religion and science alone, which is an 
unparalled miracle of the Vedic religion, entitles it to be 
regarded as the religion of scientific truth, which the term 
Vaidika dharma literally signifies. 


To the age at least of twenty four in the case of a boy 
and of sixteen in the case of a girl this tutelage with the 
preceptor should continue. Then alone is the snataka, i.e. 
graduate, whom the shastras call twice-born because of his or 
her second birth from the Acharya’s womb, allowed to marry. 
The bride and the bridegroom have free choice in selecting 
their mate. The Acharvas who have been keeping a watch 
over the lives of their respective wards, and are most 
intimately acquainted with their inner temperaments, compare 
between them notes they have taken of their gradual 
unfolding, and recommend to their respective disciples what 
spouse will suit them. The function of other elders is also 
advisory. The ultimate decision rests with the pair themselves. 
In the course of the ritual performed at the time of marriage 
some very solemn vows are taken by the prospective wife and 
husband. The latter undertakes to support her, forswearing 
concealment of any enjoyment of his from her. While the 
wife is to remain at the house and look after their joint concerns 
at home, all outside functions fall to the lot of the husband. 
They form, as it were, the centrifugal and cetripetal forces of 
the family system. The idea not of equality or inequality, but 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 88 . 
of the capability to supplement each other by dint of their 
different endowments peculiar to their respective sexes, is 
the keynote of the matrimonial relation. According to the 
Vedic ideal, marriage is not a contract but a spiritua necessity, 
solemnised by the performance of sacrament. 

The bond it forges is indissoluble Divorce is for bidden. 
Souls once mated are mated for life. The disintegration of the 
household, the trifling point of view as regards marriage, the 
wresting of children from either parent and depriving them, 
as a result, of the privilege of looking upon the latter as their 
joint guardian angels appointed in its bounty from heaven, 
an Elysian foundation of angelic notions of life and its 
obligations — these and many others are the horrible 
concomitants of the liberty tomarry and unmarry as often as 
one likes. Utmost caution should, of course, be exercised at 
the time of the first selection, which once made should always 
be the final selection. In case of disharmony, separation may 
be arranged, providing also that separated pair will not marry, 
and the economic responsibility to support the wife will even 
then be the husband’s. This will make both wiser and the way 
of reconciliation smoother. Matrimony is too close a relation 
to make its maintenance depend on erotic caprice. Even if 
conjugal relations are not by the lapse of time restored, the 
self-restraint which the couple exercise as a result of their 
self-imposed isolation from each other, will be a beneficent 
schooling in sagacity and carefulness in choosing their mates 
in future lives. 

The Householder 

The wisdom which a householder gains by coming in 
contact with different strata of life and by making the best of 
all sorts of physical and mental experinces which the life of 
the world, now hard matter-of-fact, now airy as the heaven, 
affords, is an invaluable asset in the progress of knowledge of 
both the individual soul and the community of souls of which 
he is a member. While wife and children are the ‘father’s 

S9. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
paradise’, friends and guests the social animal’s Eden, the 
earthly ills of both mind and body to which animal existence, 
in whatever form, is heir, are his occasional Hades. Twenty- 
five years are the maximum period allowed for alternately 
enjoying and suffering, or suffering and enjoying, this phase 
of earthly human existence. In the course of these, all agencies 
of enlightenment, such as libraries, press, platform, picture- 
galleries etc. etc. are abundantly provided. The Aryan view of 
life is one of a deeply refined cultural mode of the 
achievement of human destiny. Both men and things are 
utilised to the utmost as the instruments of acquiring Vidya, 

The Recluse 

At the age, at the latest, of fifty the twice-born should 
retire again into privacy. At this stage he becomes a student 
once more, this time a self-dependent student, a student more 
of self than of things and persons besides self. Thus detached 
from the phenomenal world, he rivets his mind on permanent 
concerns of spiritual humanity. The problems which face 
mankind for all time, apart from the ephemeral happenings of 
day-to-day, engage his attention. 

The Sanyasi 

If a Brahmana, i.e. a teacher, he may, after this period 
of preparation, come out again into the public as the common 
guide and friend of all communities. His narrow prejudices 
gone, his bias towards himself and those whom he in former 
days regarded as his own, all these different forms of 
selfishness of gradually widening range are, at the end of this 
conscious but automatic process, vanished. He is a Sanyasi, 
cosmopolitan philosopher. All communities claim him as their 
own. He has no possessions. His home is in the open, or else 
in the vehicles which carry him from one place to another. He 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 90 
is a roaming promulgator of God’s Wisdom. Indifferent to his 
own comforts and conveniences, his one concern is to make 
mankind, and with it the whole animal kingdom, comfortable 
and happy. Of all agencies of humanitarian effort to secure the 
welfare of the world, the high goal aimed at in the Sixth Principle, 
the Sanyasi is decidedly the most powerful. The world to-day 
lacks this agency and is, therefore, at war with its own highest 
good, peace. For if every man were to realise his own ultimate 
identity with other men, with whom would he fight but himself 
? Humanity to-day is, alas !, at war with itself. 

The Ideal of the Arya Samaj 

Thus does the Arya Samaja seek to further right 
knowledge and dispel ignorance, to promote realisation and 
remedy illusion. Knowledge, according to the definition of 
the Arya Shastras, is right knowledge, knowledge born of the 
Vedas, knowledge which will make-us discriminate between 
right and wrong, between what tends to our good and what 
leads to our vinual ruin. The furtherance of literacy is only a 
part, a minor part, of the educational programme laid out by 
Dayananda. Not simply schools but whole lives of human 
beings have to be made the instruments of realisation, Vidya. 
Vidva, as. conceived by the Rishis, is not simply knowledge 
in the modern sense ; it is identification of one’s self with the 
Real, the True, the Right. 


Ten Commandments Principles of Ary a Samaj 

The Ninth Principle 


One should not be content with one’s own welfare 
alone, but should look for one’s own welfare in the welfare of 

3?^ dRrH'ftdlFiJI I 

cHT w\ %■; ^7: : I I 

For him to whom all beings are as his own self — 
The enlightened one, 

Where is passion ? Where sorrow ? 

For him who has seen the one in many. 

-YajurVeda. XL. 7. 

Self-Lesser and Greater 

In the Nineth Principle individual good and social 
good are mutually reconciled. To the founder of the Arya 
Samaj the two appear to be identical. Never be content with 
the promotion of your own welfare. Promote the welfare of 
all. For this alone can you really push on your own good. The 
altruistic outlook is found on minute scrutiny to be ultimately 

Ten Commandments Principles of Arya Samaj 92. 

egoistic in the real sense. Only this form of egoism is the true 
one, the narrower view being simply illusory. A great part of 
individual happiness or misery depends upon the happy and 
miserable state of the society, in the midst of which the lot of 
the individual is cast. In a nation of slaves the freedom of 
activity and growth of every indvidual will be handicapped. 
In a country where a majority of the population is of dullards, 
of intellectual imbeciles, the birth of geniusnes is freak. The 
general level of the society, in which one is born and has 
latter one’s being, is a potent factor in determining the 
intellectual and ethical level one will reach. The economic 
condition of the country are in a very large measure 
responsible for the prosperity and penury of its citizens. 
Wealth and poverty are relative terms. The poor citizens of a 
wealthy country may be on a par in the matter of their 
possession with even the favourites of nature in land accuresed 
of the gods. How can you remain healthy, how can you keep 
your atmosphere clear of infection, if your neighbours do not 
co-operate with you in observing the laws of health ? That 
man is a social animal is true in all vital transaction of all 
vitally essential department of human life. We rise and fall 
together. What has been emphasised in respect of individuals 
in relation to the nation, is a truism also in respect of nations 
in relation to humanity. If the international conduct of all 
countries were regulated by humanitarian motives, much of 
the wastage of men as well as of materials, which the 
competition attitude of today, manifesting itself in the 
precautionary building and maintenance of useless 
armaments and of unnecessarily large troops which, when 
fight, mow down the flower of humanity belonging to their 
own as much as the adversary’s country, might be averted. 
The psychology of politicians, which percolates graduelly 
to all the ranks of the society today, alas, poisoning education 
and artificially obsessing the intercommunal outlook of those 
who would otherwise be humane beings — teachers, for 

93 . Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
instance, and writers, scientists and philosophers, merchants 
and husbandmen, and pontiffs, whose professed mission is to 
promote peace, would, under the humane regime we 
contemplate, be the psychology of peace. The whole humanity 
will prosper in the prosperity of individul nations, and, vice 
versa, individual nations will prosper in the prosperity of 
whole humanity. 

Sequence of Principles 

The Arya Samaj in its foregoing five principles first 
fixes its ideal of humanitarianism and then traces in scientific 
succession the means of its achivement. The varnashrama 
system laid out in the last two principles, viz., the 
classification of men and women according to their capacities 
and temperaments, and, what is a practical realisation of these, 
their occupations and activities, and the graduation of their 
lives into stages which will fit them in due course for their 
highest self-fulfilment, is the most economic, the most wisely 
framed way of utilizing for others and promoting for their 
own welfare the potentialities of human beings. 

The Daily Duties: 1. Brahmayajna 

The same spirit marks the daily life of the Arya to 
which five duties are attached as the indispensable daily round. 
The first great duty or Mahayajna is the duty of meditation 
on the Supreme Being with a view to adapting our little selves, 
as far as our individual capacities admit of adaptation, to His 
Supreme virtues of wisdom, truth, justice, mercy, etc. A part 
of the same Mahayajna is a daily intelligent recital of portion 
of the Vedas. 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 94 . 

2. Deva Yajna 

The second great duty is called the deva yajna or 
homa, in the course of which fire is ignited to the accompaniment 
of maniras from the Veda, and ghi and other odoriferous, 
nutritious, and sugary substances are oblated to it. The most 
obvious object of this performance is to purge the atmosphere 
of all unhealthy impurities and charge it with gases and particles 
which will, besides disinfecting air, positively promote the 
physical well-being of. men. A formula, often repeated during 
this daily ritual, viz, idanna mama — this oblation is not mine 
alone but is meant for the benefit of whole humanity — is an 
index to the cosmopolitan mentality sought to be inculcated in 
the performer. 

3. Service of Elders 

The third great duty is termed Pitri yajna i e., the 
duty of feeding and otherwise serving elders. The shastric 
conception of an Arya is of a member of a family. The 
youngsters, as they come of age and get married, were never 
thouht of by the Rishis as cutting themselves as-under from 
the parental trunk. Having themselves been fed once, they 
are bound now to feed those who in their turn require their 
assistance in their old declining age. He whose parents and 
grand-parents are not living is required to feed at his table a 
Brahmana, i.e., one who is deeply learned and has devoted 
himself wholly to honorary service of mankind. This was the 
original Vedic teaching which the followers of Confucious in 
China and later day teachers in other countries construed 
into ancestor-worship and oblation to manes of the dead. The 

95 . Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
Aryan religion concerns itself with the living. The feeding of 
the Brahmana, though vicarious in this Yajna, is not intended 
to appease the hunger of the dead in some other sphere but to 
satisfy the filial sentiment in the heart and fulfil a material 
necessity of society. 

4. Service of Guests. 5. Feeding of Animals 

The fourth great duty is the atithi yajna or the duty of 
serving unexpected visitors. Among them the place of honor 
is assigned to Sanyasis, who come to villages and towns in 
the course of their usual pregerinations. Last though not least 
is the bhuta yajna or the duty to feed and look after the welfare 
of sub-human creatures. 

The Benefit of the Charity is Our Own 

What programme of selfless charity could be more 
complete ? These are daily duties, by neglecting to perform 
which one incurs sin. Equally remarkable, if not more so then 
the actual good that is done under the guise of these 
performances, is the mental outlook of the performer’ with 
which his daily performance of them imbues him. The 
recipients of the charity of every Arya Samajist are in the 
main men and women whose beneficent service tends to 
elevate whole mankind. And then he is thaught to regard 
these gifts as elevating his own self, taking him every day 
nearer salvation. What better and closer reconciliation could 
there be of the individual and the national, and broader still, 
the cosmopolitan ego ? 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 


The Tenth Principle 


One should regard one’s self under restriction to 
follow altruistic rulings of society, while in following rules 
of individual welfare all should be free, 


Social discipline is not individual discipline; 
Individual discipline is not social. 

-Atharva Veda. IV 3.7 

Duty — Public and Private 

The last principle is designed to make simple the 
conflict that may sometimes arise between the personal and 
social obligations of a man. Occasions there are when private 
rights have to be jealously guarded, while at the same time 
there is a demand on our conscience of public interest which 
seems to requirs sacrifice, not only of personal interest but 
also of personal liberty. In foregoing his personal inclination 
a public-spirited member of society may not feel any great 
hesitation, though a strain too heavy upon even what are 
simply likes and dislikes of individuals may sometimes prove 

97. Ten Commandments Principles of Atya Samaj 
dangerous. Break not the back of the camel with the burden 
of even a straw. The problem becomes serious when what 
seems to be a private duty draws you one way, while the voice 
of the majority has decided otherwise. Which way will you 
then follow ? How far should the majority morally compel 
our compliance with its decisions and where should it leave 
us free to choose our own line of procedure ? 

A question simply of details of conduct but one 
concerning the practice of a caldinal virtue, viz, 
selfabnega-tion, has been incorporated in the Principles 
because of its daily and even hourly recurrence in our social 
life and of the very important issues which hang on its solution 
alone. There could be no corporate existence if the rights of 
the individual and the combined claim on him of the 
corporation, of which he is a member, were not clearly 
demarcated one from the other. 

Independence versus License 

This distinction is the same as that made in common 
parlance between the interests of private and public life. The 
independence allowed by Dayananda in the former is not 
independence absolute. In every department of life, whether 
public or private, discipline is the keynote of Dayananda’s 
regime of human conduct. We have to abide by the rules. 
Whether by our own lights or by the lights of the majority of 
our fellow-workers, is the problem. And the Rishi’s answer is, 
by both. The Principle indicates the respective sphere of each 
of these lights. Independence would be license, if it were to 
be interpreted as the liberty to shirk discipline, to flout rules. 

Minority and Majority 

The injunctions of the Veda, which are our primary 
criterion of right and wrong, can neither be defined nor 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj gg m 
construed by votes. Even one vote of a Veda-knowing 
Brahmana is weightier in this regard than any number of votes 
of those ignorant of the scriptures. No mathematician would 
submit a mathe-matical riddle to be solved by a show of hands 
among lay men. The writings of the wise, and the example 
they have set — our next two tests of truth and untruth — can 
also be rightly understood and explained with regard to the 
manner in which they bear on our present problems, by those 
impartially devoted to a study of these. The voice of 
conscience, our unfailing internal monitor, is, as we have 
shown elsewhere, our last moral mentor. Its dictates depend 
upon the training we have had, our nurture during preceding 
and present lives. Men competent to decide — and they are a 
few — can alone be set on this delicate job. Let them not be 
pitted against an illiterate mob, whose passions are moved 
by the sentiment of the moment. 

Where to follow majority ? 

The voice of majority is to be allowed to prevail 
only in matters of procedure. It is on this account that Dayananda 
introduces this phase of social activity last. The superiority 
which the wise may claim for their sagacious judgement even 
in the laying out of details, should display itself in this respect 
in their ability to persuade those who are intellectually less 
fitted to judge. That the opinion of the iearned is sound will 
be invariably tested by results. The majority will instinctively 
obey their leaders, if the latter show by actual achievements 
that they lead their following mostly to success. The privilege 
to guide has associated inalienably with it a supreme sense 
of responsibility. Guidance which often fails cannot in future 
be implicitly relied on. To command unquestioning 
obedience, it has to combine in itself the conjoint magnetism 
of sagacity and self-sacrifice. What the masses abhor is self- 
interest in the leaders. Let true Brahmanas come to the fore 

99. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
and instinctive revernce on the part of the mob will 
deservedly be their instantaneous meed. Occasions arise, as 
on the outbreak of a war, when the whole nation entrusts the 
helm in the hands of a single captain, the wisest, the coolest, 
the most trustworthy man. Then the rule is unquestionung 

The Limits of Liberty 

Whether the leading voice be that of the majority or 
of an intellectual aristocracy, or even in cases of emergency 
of a single dictator, the golden rule which should guide the 
choice of the worker, i.e., the man or woman in the ranks is 
that if the obedience or disobedience of the command affects, 
in its result, only his person he is free to obey it, or say no In 
cases, however, where the social welfare is at stake, the 
individual member must unconditionally submit to the will 
of all. The commanding authority, too, has always to keep 
this line of demarcation in view. In the interest of state or 
Society, let the authorities be exacting. In the personal affairs 
of the subject their interference, if any, should be simply 

The Province of Law 

Dayananda means this principle to be borne in mind 
by the framers of rules, the executors of law, as also those that 
come under its jurisdiction. The line he draws between the 
sphere of private liberty on the one hand, and of social or 
communal duty on the other, is very clear and sharp. This 
distinction observed, many of the entanglements that make a 
knotty problem of what should be the nature of the social, 
political and national behaviour of men, will vanish. 

The Province of Samaj 

The authorities in every sphere have to confine their 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj jqq _ 

surveillance to that phase alone of the common men’s lives which 
comes within their immediate purview. The military, for instance, 
should not dabble in religion, nor judiciary in education. The 
Arya Samaj being a religious body, with a comprehensive 
programme of individual and social reform, has a wider scope of 
functions than any other corporate authority. Here even the 
individual lives of the members come under watch and ward. 
Immorality, be it individual or social, will upset the moral working 
of the whole society. Continual non-performanee or irregular 
performance of Sandhya or any other Samskara on the part of its 
members even in their homes will stultify the religious existence 
of the community. In these things the Samaj cannot remain ‘ 
silent without nullifying itself. With due regard to the conditions 
of the society around it, it will fix a moral minimum, below which 
no member will be allowed to sink without fear of forfeiture of 
social right which membership confers on him. Encouragement 
will always be given to individuals to rise above that minimum. 
From time to time this minimum will also be revised, so as to 
make progress constant. This minimum, then, ‘will in the case of 
every individual Samaj or of a body of Samaj as constitute the 
line between the sphere, on the one hand of personal liberty and 
on the other social duty of the members. To remain in the forefront 
of reforming bodies the moral and social level of the member of 
the Arya Samaj should always be considerably higher than that 
of the surrounding masses. While conviction in the teachings of 
the Vedas, demanded from the members, should be complete, 
their practice in conformity with the doctrines should be allowed 
to be progressive. There is no sphere of the lives of individuals 
which can, in their relation to the Arya Samaj, be entirely private. 
It will in practice remain private, so far as it does not come within 
the minimum, to which we have referred, of social and private 
conduct fixed by the Samaj for the time being. As the minimum 
rises, the scope of privacy will gradually be curtailed, and the 
responsibility of the members to the Samaj by degrees increase. 
The tenth principle will in its broad outlook apply at all stages. 

101. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
Our Ever-expanding Obligation 

Let us carry this rule a little further, and looking at 
ourselves as parts of the Arya Samaj and at the Arya Samaj, as 
it stands at present, as a part of a greater whole humanity, 
consider our gradually broadening responsibility, as the wholes to 

which we belong by degrees expand. 

The first five principles, we have shown, are our credal 
minimum, in the matter of these there can be no compromise 
with either a majority or a minority. In practice, too, nothing in 
contravention with our accepted principles should ever be asked 
or accepted to be done by us. Morality must be enforced, and 
even if in the name of a system of religion some obscenity or 
immorality be exhorted to. the Arya Samaj is bound to riase its 
unanimous voice against it. Where non- Arya Samaj ists are in a 
majority, the Arya Samaj shall exert itself to subvert their 
decisions, if immoral. While living in company with non-Arya 
Samajists, the Samajists will cling to certain civic rights of 
their own Adoration of Parameshwara, for instance, is every 
citizen’s personal concern of inviolable sanctity. The Arya 
Samajist will not force this concern on non-Arya Samajists, 
nor will he allow non-Arya Samajists to gratuitously interfere 
with his discharge of his obligation in this behalf. The same, 
too, will be his attitude as regards the reading of the Vedas. 
Aryan prayer is public as well as private. In private meditation 
the adorer will be guided by rules laid down by yogis, those 
who have an experience of occult meditative exercises and 
their highly exhilarating results. For congregation the 
particulars as to the time and place etc. of the performance 
have to be prescribed by the Samaj which arranges it. In this 
particular each member should subordinate his own voice to 
that of the majority. In the case of all other Yajnas and 
performances, held privately or conjointly with the society, 
the same rule applies. Greater care is needed when these or 
such other duties are performed in public places. 

Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj jq 2 . 

Demonstration is a part of civic religious activity. As at present 
constituted, the society in every country is made up of persons 
of various creeds and sects. The religion of the Vada does not 
prescribe fanatic haughtiness as a part of ritual rigidity. Where 
essentials are involved, the Arya Samajist must of necessity be 
firm ; in non-essentials he should always be accommodating 
and peaceful. Not budging an inch before a recalcitrant non 
Arya Samajist bigot, he should always be on the guard against 
adopting a bigoted attitude of a similar type himself. Civic 
peace is a part of religious propriety of conduct. To 
religion, in the broader sense, the maintenance of goodwill 
among Godmade human beings is more conducive than blood 
shed for adherence to a minor manmade form. The evolution 
of a sense of national, and looking further, international 
oneness, is a sacred mission of religion. It is religion alone 
that can look beyond social and geographical borders. The 
individuality of the smaller wholes preserved, their arrogance 
has to be laid as an offering on the altar of service to the 
greater whole. Let every religious association preserve its 
moral and spiritual essence. With this reservation let it merge 
its being in the broader being of humanity. In what concerns 
the internal welfare of communities and states, they are 
individually free to manage their own affairs. In international 
affairs, however, let them forget they are separate entities. 

One in Many 

The implications of the tenth principle are thus very 
varied and wide, in fact as varied as the varied phases of human 
activity and the different divisions of the human family into 
larger and smaller wholes, and as wides the human world itself. 
The significance of this commandment gets wider and wider as 
our social and humanitarian outlook becomes steadily broader 
and broader. Without destroying them severally, it aims at unify- 
ing the good in all sects, all communities, all nationalities, all 
colours, all creeds. It shall maintain diversity, out of which, by 
the miraculous power of love, it will evolve an unprecedented 

203. Ten Commandments Principles ofArya Samaj 
unity. The differences should be suffered to remain, to contribute 
to the variegated charm of corporate oneness. Not tedious mo- 
notony of the dead but beautiful unity of the living-One in Many- 
is the aim, the mission, the social and political and cultural for- 
mula of the Church of Lord Dayananda.